1、In 1948, the Swiss chemist Müller won the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for inventing and synthesizing which pesticide. However, after that, the large-scale application of the pesticide has caused a heavy burden on the ecological environment? A、Dioxin. B、DDT. C、Endosulfan. D、Glyphosate.
2、What characteristics of soil lead to the non-linearity of pollution process and the decrease ofbioavailability of pollutants? A、Severe human disturbance. B、Affected by atmosphere and hydrosphere. C、Highly heterogeneous medium. D、No significant change with time.
3、Environmental chemistry is a science to study the existence, chemical characteristics, behavior and effect of in environmental medium and the chemical principles and methods of its control. A、Chemical products. B、Synthetic chemicals. C、Hazardous chemicals. D、All known chemicals.
4、Since Thompson published "lost at the sea: where is all the plastic" in Science in 2004, marine plastic pollution has attracted more and more attention of environmentalists. Microplastics are generally considered to be plastic particles with particle size smaller than ? A、5 cm. B、5 mm. C、5 μm. D、5 nm.
5、Pentachlorophenol is an efficient and cheap broad-spectrum insecticide, preservative and herbicide, which has been widely used in schistosomiasis endemic areas to kill ? A、Larva of Schistosoma japonicum. B、Intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum. C、Adult Schistosoma japonicum. D、Male Schistosoma japonicum.
6、Among the following methods, the methods that can be used to extract different forms of heavy metals in soil include: A、SPE solid phase extraction. B、BCR fractional extraction. C、Tessier continuous extraction method. D、ASE accelerated solvent extraction.
7、Nonylphenol is a kind of widely used nonionic surfactant. Which of the following properties does its degradation product have? A、Endocrine interference. B、Increased toxicity. C、Increased durability. D、Increased degradability.
8、The plasticizer phthalate is easy to release into the environment. With the increase of the side chain, the solubility of this kind of oxygen-containing pollutants decreases and the biodegradability increases.
9、Eutrophication of water body refers to a series of water environment problems caused by the excessive growth and reproduction of some or some kinds of organisms due to the excess of trace elements in water body.
10、Substances that are easy to cause groundwater pollution are usually substances that are not easy to be adsorbed by the soil.
1、The intense absorption of infrared radiation by molecule in the wavelength range of 12-18 μm can cause greenhouse effect and make the atmosphere near the ground warm. A、CO. B、CO2. C、CH₄. D、O3.
2、The main nitrogen-containing pollutant in the atmosphere is NOx, and two-thirds of the anthropogenic sources are from ____. A、Emission of coal combustion from power plants. B、Emission from mobile sources such as automobiles. C、Fuel combustion in industrial production process. D、Incineration process of waste incineration plants.
3、In aldehydes, not only a primary pollutant, but also a secondary pollutant. Moreover, almost all chemical reactions of air pollution involve it. A、Formaldehyde. B、Acetaldehyde. C、Glyoxal. D、Propionaldehyde.
4、The content of water vapor in the atmosphere is generally . A、0.5~5%. B、1~3%. C、2~10%. D、10-15%.
5、The source apportionment model of atmosphere which can infer the proportion of different source types is: A、Enrichment factor method. B、Chemical element balance method. C、Pollution load model. D、Environmental fluid dynamics model.
6、The generation of dust-haze is the result of many factors, including: A、The friction coefficient of the ground increases due to the large buildings in the city. B、The urban heat island effect makes it difficult for the pollutants to circulate and spread in a small range. C、The vertical inversion of the atmosphere makes the pollutants stay near the ground. D、The rapid development of industry increases the emission of particles.
7、Los Angeles smog, also known as photochemical smog, contains primary pollutants such as and ﹐ in the atmosphere, which produce secondary pollutants by photochemical reaction under sunlight. This kind of smog pollution phenomenon is formed by the mixture of primary pollutants and secondary pollutants. A、Nitrogen oxides. B、Sulfur oxides. C、Hydrocarbons. D、Hydrosulfide compound.
8、The surface of rigid solid, such as soot, is usually unchangeable. Once poisoned, it is difficult to recover.
9、Under 298K and acid conditions, the higher the pH of the solution is, the faster the reaction rate of tetravalent sulfur and nitrogen dioxide.
10、The concentration of SO2 in the atmosphere is characterized by seasonal variation, with the highest in summer and the lowest in winter.
Chapter III water environment chemistry
Chapter III water environment chemistry
1、The ratio of N / P can be used to judge the eutrophication of lakes. When the value of N / P is , it is considered as eutrophication. A、N / P＜10. B、10＜N / P＜15. C、15 ＜N / P＜100. D、100＜N / P.
2、The pE value of natural water with the decrease of pH. A、Decrease. B、Increase. C、Decrease first and then increase. D、Keep stable.
3、When the distribution mechanism is dominant, the adsorption coefficient is determined by the content of in the soil and sediment. Therefore, the uniform distribution coefficient (Koc) of this index is used to express the adsorption capacity of unit organic matter. A、Humus. B、Organic matter. C、Particle size. D、Isoelectric point.
4、In eutrophic lakes, which conditions are conducive to the growth of algae? A、Increase in pH. B、Decrease in pH. C、Increase in dissolved oxygen. D、Decrease in dissolved oxygen.
5、The ring complex is formed by ligands with more than one coordination atom and the central atom, which is called . A、Coordination compounds. B、Chelates. C、Complexes. D、Covalent compounds.
6、Which of the following changes will cause the release of heavy metals in sediments? A、Increase in salinity. B、Change in redox conditions. C、Increase in pH. D、Increase of accessory ingredient in water.
8、The two-film theory is a classical theory of mass transfer mechanism. It is assumed that the mass transfer resistance between gas and liquid phases is all concentrated in the stagnant film on both sides of the interface, while at the main body and the interface of the two phases, the mass transfer resistance is 0.
9、Co-metabolism refers to the fact that organic pollutants cannot be the only carbon source and energy source of microorganisms. Only when other compounds provide carbon source or energy for microorganisms, can organic compounds be degraded.
10、The hydrolysis of halogenated hydrocarbons only occurs on aromatic compounds.
Chapter IV Soil Environmental Chemistry
Chapter IV test
1、The heavy metal binding states that can enter the biosphere and have a great impact on the food chain are: A、exchangeable form B、carbonate bounded form C、Fe-Mn oxide form D、organic combination form
2、The most important factors affecting the toxicity of heavy metals to plants are: A、Soil organic matter B、existing form of heavy metals C、concentration of heavy metals D、plant species
3、Bangladesh blackfood disease is caused by pollution. A、Cd B、Cr C、As D、Hg
4、The primary minerals in the soil include: A、phosphates B、oxides C、silicates D、nitrates
5、Soil colloid has the following characteristics: A、large specific surface area B、small surface energy C、structure of double electrode layer D、coherency
6、Which of the following types of soil has potential acidity: A、soil of base saturation B、base-unsaturated soil C、soil with large amount of Al3+ D、soil with adsorbed H+
7、If only pollutants and heavy metals are considered, which of the following factors will affect the accumulation of heavy metals in plants? A、the nature of heavy metal itself B、the amount of heavy metal C、the nature of co-existing elements D、the concentration of co-existing elements
8、Factors affecting the diffusion of pesticides in soil include: A、adsorption capacity of pesticide and soil B、mechanical composition of soil C、moisture content of soil D、concentration gradient of pesticide
9、Soil pH has a significant effect on the form of heavy metals. Generally speaking, the lower the soil pH is, the easier heavy metals migrate to the organism
10、The mass flow of pesticides in soil is driven by external forces and flows with water and soil particles as a whole
Chapter V migration process and toxicity of pollutants in organism
Chapter V test
1、The range of Kow value for organic matter prone to biomagnification is () A、＜10^5 B、10^5--10^7 C、＞10^7 D、10^6--10^7
3、Under the action of oxygenase, n-alkanes will undergo terminal oxidation to form alcohols. Is it right?
4、Membrane pore is a micro pore with nonpolarity in biomembrane, is it right?
5、The main absorption site of digestive tract is stomach, is it right?
6、Bioaccumulation refers to the phenomenon that organisms accumulate some elements or refractory substances from the surrounding environment by means of swallowing, so that their concentration in the body is higher than that in the surrounding environment. Is it right?
7、Enzyme can only work in cells, is it right?
8、FMN and FAD are coenzymes of hydrolase. Is it right?
9、Biological oxidation can be divided into aerobic oxidation and anaerobic oxidation according to the hydrogen acceptor. Is it right?
10、Sulfoconjugation is carried out under the catalysis of sulfuric acid transferase. Is it right?
Chapter VI the fate and effect of typical compounds in different environmental layers
Chapter VI test
1、The toxicity of alkyl mercury is 10-100 times greater than that of soluble inorganic mercury, is it right?
2、Similar to mercury, after arsenic methylation, the toxicity will increase significantly. Is it right?
3、Short-chain PFASs can be migrated in water for a long distance, and the concentration will remain unchanged after reducing to a certain extent. Is it right?
4、Plasticizer mainly weakens the secondary bond between polymer molecules, namely Van der Waals force. Is it right?
5、Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) can be metabolized to monoester in vivo, and its structure is similar to natural estrogen, so it has endocrine interference. Is it right?
6、The form of Hg is only affected by pH. Is it right?
7、With the increase of soil pH and the decrease of Eh, the solubility of AS can be improved. Is it right?
8、Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are mainly separated by liquid chromatography and detected by fluorescence detector. Is it right?
9、Perfluorinated compounds have high surface activity, chemical and thermal stability. Is it right?
10、Plasticizers and plastics have chemical bonding, which is not easy to migrate to the external environment and food. Is it right?
Chapter VII remediation of the polluted environment
Chapter VII test
1、Which of the following belongs to an in situ bioremediation technology A、composting method B、anaerobic treatment C、bioventing method D、all is right
2、According to the plant site where the remediation is carried out, microbial remediation technology can be divided into in situ bioremediation and ex situ bioremediation. Is it right?
3、The main methods to remove pollutants by phytoremediation include plant degradation, plant volatilization, plant stability and plant extraction. Is it right?
4、The vertical flow constructed wetland has strong ability to remove organic matter and ammonia nitrogen, but it has poor stability and anti-shock loading capability. Is it right?
5、Heavy metal passivation technology can remove heavy metals from soil. Is it right?
6、Biochar is a kind of insoluble, stable, highly aromatic solid substance with rich carbon produced by biomass pyrolysis at relatively low temperature (< 700 ℃) under the condition of sufficient oxygen. Is it right?
7、Hydroxyl radicals have strong oxidizability, which ranks second only to fluorine in the known oxidants. Is it right?
8、Electrolysis results in alkalinity near the anode and acidity near the cathode. Is it right?
9、Permeable reactive barrier (PRB) technology is a technology used in situ. Is it right?
10、The molecular characteristic of surfactants is that they only contain hydrophobic groups. Is it right?
Chapter VIII purification technology of environmental pollutants
Chapter VIII test
1、In an adsorption process, physical adsorption and chemical adsorption are often isolated. Is it right?
2、Natural zeolite is a typical organic ion exchanger, is it right?
3、The mass transfer process from organic phase to water phase is a back-extraction process. Is it right?
4、Microfiltration is a membrane separation process with pressure difference as driving force according to screening principle. Is it right?
5、Agglomeration refers to the aggregation caused by polymer. Is it right?
6、It is a common homogeneous photochemical catalysis that a certain amount of photosensitive semiconductor material is added to the pollution system. Is it right?
7、Electrochemical technology is characterized by the removal of refractory organics without any oxidants. Is it right?
8、Wet air oxidation is a process in which organic pollutants are oxidized into inorganic or small molecular organic compounds such as CO2 and H2O in the gas phase by using oxidants under high temperature and pressure. Is it right?
9、O3 is an allotrope of O2. Under normal temperature and pressure, it is a kind of colorless gas which is unstable and has special pungent smell. Is it right?
10、Combustion can recover organic matter and energy. Is it right?
Environmental Chemistry's final exam
1、Is the Yusho disease incident in Japan was caused by ( ) pollution? A、Chromium. B、Cadmium. C、Polychlorinated biphenyls. D、Dioxin.
2、Environmental chemistry is a science that studies the existence, chemical characteristics, behavior and effect of ( ) in environmental medium and the chemical principles and methods of its control. A、Chemical products. B、Synthetic chemicals. C、Hazardous chemicals. D、All chemicals known.
3、The destruction of the ozone layer occurs in ( ). A、Troposphere. B、Stratosphere. C、Mesosphere. D、Thermosphere.
4、An important reason for the increasing eutrophication of water body in China is ( )： A、The management of water bodies with different functions is not strict. B、Industrial sewage is discharged directly without treatment. C、Over use of chemical fertilizer in agricultural production. D、Single ecosystem species.
5、PPCPs is a kind of ( ) closely related to people's life? A、Antibiotic. B、Pharmaceutical and personal care products. C、Pesticides. D、Cleaning agent.
6、If the incinerator temperature of the waste incineration plant is lower than 800 ℃, which of the following highly toxic substances will be produced ( ): A、OCPs. B、PCBs. C、Dioxin. D、PCTs.
7、Pentachlorophenol is an efficient and cheap broad-spectrum insecticide, preservative and herbicide, which has been widely used in schistosomiasis endemic areas to kill ( )? A、Larvae of Schistosoma japonicum. B、Oncomelania, the intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum. C、Adult Schistosoma japonicum. D、Male Schistosoma japonicum.
8、The structural formula of TNT is : A、 B、 C、 D、
9、In the troposphere, when the height increases by 100 m, the temperature decreases ( ) ℃. A、0.5 B、0.6 C、1.0 D、1.2
10、In ( ), the air is thin and there is little weather phenomenon. Commercial airliners with long flight distance mostly cruise in this layer. A、Troposphere. B、Stratosphere. C、Mesosphere. D、Thermosphere.
11、The absorption of ultraviolet rays by ( ) causes the temperature to rise and the air to be highly ionized, so it is also called the ionosphere. A、Troposphere B、Stratosphere C、Mesosphere D、Thermosphere
12、99.9% of the atmospheric mass is concentrated in the range below ( ) km. A、40 B、50 C、70 D、90
13、The sulfur dioxide discharged into the atmosphere is generally converted into sulfuric acid or sulfate, and is generally removed from the atmosphere through ( ). A、Plant adsorption B、Dry and wet settlement C、Biological respiration D、Microbial immobilization
14、Hydrogen sulfide is produced mainly from sulfate in plant organisms by ( ) reduction of microorganisms A、Sulfur fixation activities B、anaerobic activities C、Oxygen consumption activities D、Anti-vulcanization activity
15、In recent years, ( ) produced in the process of soil denitrification has been reported to have greenhouse effect. A、NO B、NO2 C、N2O D、N2
16、For a typical gasoline, its stoichiometric air-fuel ratio is ( ). A、12.6 B、14.6 C、16.6 D、20.6
17、Which of the following conventions or agreements is intended to control freon alternatives in response to global climate change？ A、Stockholm Convention B、Montreal Protocol C、Kyoto Protocol D、Basel convention
18、In atmospheric chemistry, （）of the organic compounds are the most important way to produce free radicals. A、Thermal cracking B、photolysis C、Redox method D、Induced decomposition
19、If both photophysical and photochemical processes occur after a molecule absorbs photons, the sum of quantum yields of all primary processes must be___1. A、Less than B、Equal to C、Greater than D、Less than or equal to
20、( ) is an important light absorbing substance in the urban atmosphere. It can absorb all ultraviolet and part visible light from the sun in the lower atmosphere. A、NO B、NO2 C、N2O D、N2
21、Although wet deposition can effectively remove the particles in the atmosphere, however, it is difficult to remove the particles with a particle size of about ( ) mm through wet deposition. A、0.5 B、2 C、10 D、50
22、Haze refers to the mixture of fog and haze with water content between ( ). A、60-80% B、75-85% C、80-90% D、85-95%
23、The content of heavy metals in hyperaccumulator plants should be more than 100 times of that in general plants. Sedum alfredii is a kind of zinc hyperaccumulator plant. Generally, the content of zinc in plants is about 100 mg / kg dry weight, while the content of zinc in Sedum alfredii is up to ( ) mg/kg. A、100 B、1000 C、10000 D、100000
24、When denitrification occurs in the soil, the redox potential of the soil is（ ） A、>700 mV B、400-700 mV C、<400 mV D、<200 mV
25、Which of the following gases in the atmosphere is primarily a natural rather than a human source? A、NO B、H2S C、NH3 D、CO2
26、Alkenes and ozone mainly occur ( ) in the atmosphere A、Cleavage reaction B、Hydrogen removal reaction C、Other D、Addition reaction
27、The main type of reaction between HO radical and alkane in atmosphere is A、Hydrogen atom removal reaction B、Addition reaction C、Elimination reaction D、Other types of reactions
28、With the increase of benzene ring, the vapor pressure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons decreases and they finally exist in the form of ___. A、gaseous state B、liquid state C、solid state D、mixed state
29、Which of the following types of persistent pollutants are commonly used in transformers and capacitors？ A、PCBs B、PAHs C、PCDDs D、DDT
30、Which of the statement about the toxicity of mercury in the environment is correct? A、Inorganic mercury > elemental mercury > organic mercury B、Organic mercury > elemental mercury > inorganic mercury C、Elemental mercury > inorganic mercury > organic mercury D、Inorganic mercury > organic mercury > elemental mercury
31、The following are the differences between exclusive and non-exclusive adsorption, which of the statement is correct? A、Non-exclusive adsorption mainly occurs in the diffusion layer and exclusive adsorption occurs in the inner layer B、When adsorption occurs, the pH value of the exclusive adsorption must be greater than the isoelectric point, and there is no requirement for non-exclusive adsorption C、Metal ions act as countra-ions in exclusive adsorption and as coordination ions in non-exclusive adsorption D、Cation exchange adsorption mainly occurs in exclusive adsorption, while ligand exchange adsorption occurs in non-exclusive adsorption
32、The solubility of humic acid in natural water is ( ). A、soluble in alkali and insoluble in acid B、Soluble in acid and insoluble in alkali C、Soluble in acids and bases D、Insoluble in acids and bases
33、When pH value is reduced, the release of heavy metals from sediment in water will ( ) A、Increase B、Decrease C、No impact D、Can not judge
34、Atmospheric temperature inversion mainly occurs in ( ). A、Cold night B、Cloudy winter C、Cold and clear winter D、Cold and clear night
35、In the determination of total phosphorus, which group of substances in the following example will produce interference, or the determination result is too low? A、Arsenite, Cr (Ⅲ), Cu (Ⅱ), Nitrite B、Arsenate, Cr (Ⅵ), Cu (Ⅱ), Nitrate C、Arsenate, Cr (Ⅵ), Cu (Ⅱ), Nitrite D、Arsenite, Cr (Ⅲ), Cu (Ⅱ), Nitrate
36、In the determination of ammonia nitrogen, the yellow complex produced by ammonia and ( ) can be determined under the wavelength of 425nm. A、Naphthylethylenediamine hydrochloride developer B、Nessler reagent C、Mixed reagent D、Phenol disulfonate reagent
37、The re-release of heavy metals from suspended solids or sediments is a secondary pollution problem, and ( ) may induce the release of heavy metals. A、Particle deposition B、Reduce the pH value of water C、The speed of water flow is accelerated D、Aggravation of eutrophication
38、Among the following aromatic compounds, the most difficult to be degraded by microorganisms is ( ) A、Phenol B、Dichlorotoluene C、Aniline D、Benzoic acid
39、The surfactant contains strong ( ), which is easy to disperse the insoluble substances in the water body and migrate with the water flow for a long time. A、Hydrophobic group B、Hydrophilic group C、Adsorption D、Osmosis
40、The electrostatic dust removal method is used to remove the particles in the flue gas. The surface property of the particles used is ( ) A、Nucleation B、Bonding C、Sorption D、Absorption
41、The four spheres of the atmosphere include ( ): A、Troposphere. B、Stratosphere. C、Mesosphere. D、Thermosphere.
42、The nutrient elements in water include ( ): A、C, O B、N, P C、As, Hg D、Fe, Mn
43、What are the following characteristics of persistent pollutants? A、Persistance. B、Bioaccumulation. C、Semi-volatility. D、High toxicity.
44、The artificial sources of ozone depleting substances mainly include ( ). A、Halon. B、Freon. C、PFCs. D、HCFCs.
45、Nonylphenol is a kind of widely used non-ionic surfactant. What are the properties of its degradation products? A、Endocrine interference. B、Increased toxicity. C、Increased durability. D、Enhanced degradability.
46、Which of the following compounds can be used as a surfactant ? A、Nonylphenol. B、Sudan Red. C、Quaternary ammonium salt. D、Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate.
47、The temperature of ___ and ___ decreases with the height. A、Troposphere. B、Stratosphere. C、Mesosphere. D、Thermosphere.
48、Which of the following pollutants are secondary pollutants in the atmosphere? A、Ozone. B、Carbon monoxide. C、Acid rain. D、Sulfur dioxide.
49、Natural sources of sulfur compounds in the atmosphere include: A、Volcanic eruption. B、Fossil fuel combustion. C、Waves sputter. D、Biological activity.
50、Which of the following are greenhouse gases? A、Methane. B、Carbon dioxide. C、Argon. D、Freon gas.
51、Local circulations caused by geographical situations include： A、land and sea breeze B、Suburban wind C、Hill wind D、Valley wind
52、Important free radicals in the atmosphere include： A、HO• B、RO• C、HO2• D、R•
53、HO • in the atmosphere is derived primarily from the photolysis of which of the following substances： A、O3 B、HNO2 C、CH3X D、H2O2
54、HO2 • in the atmospheric is derived primarily from the photolysis of which of the following substances： A、Aldehydes B、Nitrous acid C、Nitrous Acid Ester D、Hydrogen peroxide
55、Which of the following meteorological conditions causes sulfuric acid smog？ A、Low temperature B、High humidity C、High ozone concentration D、Weak sunlight
57、Which of the following are the ingredients in natural water： A、Inorganic salt B、Gas C、Algae D、Particulate matter
58、Adsorption is the phenomenon that the concentration of solute in the solution increases in the solid interface layer, including ( ), ( ) and ( ). A、Surface adsorption B、Ion exchange adsorption C、Distributive adsorption D、Exclusive adsorption
59、The important role of humic acid in heavy metal pollution research includes ( ): A、Strong adsorption capacity of humic acid, which can inhibit metal precipitation B、The toxicity of heavy metals is influenced by humic acid C、Adsorption of organic pollutants by humic acid D、Humic acid changes the surface properties of particles
60、Photosensitization of humus can lead to photodegradation of organic pollutants, and there are different effects of ( ) and ( ) on the photodegradation of chlorophenol, methylphenol, phenanthrene, nitrobenzene, etc. A、Colloidal substance B、Humic acid C、Fulvic acid D、Saprophyte
61、The composition of soil air is similar to that of the atmosphere, but there are some differences, including ( ): A、Soil air discontinuity B、Low O2 content C、The content of water vapor is low D、Existence of reducing gas
62、In the study of soil pollutant adsorption, clay minerals are important adsorption media, including ( ): A、Illite B、Hornblende C、Montmorillonite D、Kaolinite
63、The research results from Professor Qiu Chengcai show that the distribution of hydrophobic organic pollutants in water and soil organic phases has the following characteristics: ( ) A、The adsorption isotherm is linear B、There is no competitive adsorption C、The higher the solubility of pollutants is, the worse the adsorption capacity is D、The lower the solubility is, the worse the adsorption capacity is
64、The distribution function includes the following characteristics: ( ) A、Mainly intermolecular force B、Release high adsorption heat C、Linear adsorption D、No competitive adsorption
65、Which of the following are important pollutants in the atmosphere? ( ) A、Sulfur compounds B、Nitrogen compounds C、Oxygenated compounds D、Halogenated compounds
66、Which of the following behaviors embody the principles of green chemistry ( )： A、R & D of truly fluorine-free refrigerants B、Use organic chelate instead of phosphate to realize no phosphating of detergent C、Develop solar cells and promote solar vehicles D、Development of microbial flocculant
67、The following descriptions on the characteristics of environmental chemistry research that are correct include ( ): A、Low concentration of environmental samples B、Comprehensiveness of environmental chemistry research C、Complexity of environmental samples D、The harmfulness on the research object of Environmental Chemistry
68、Hazards of acid rain include ( ): A、Corrosion of building materials, metals, etc B、Inhibit plant growth C、Dissolving organic matter and nutrient elements in the soil to make the soil fertile D、Acidification of natural water source and destruction of acid-base balance of water body
69、The conversion pathways of PCBS in the environment include （ ）: A、Photochemical decomposition B、Microbial degradation C、Transformation through biological metabolism D、Hydrolysis
70、The colloidal material in natural water include （ ）: A、Clay minerals B、Humus C、Mineral particles D、Mineral particles
71、Environmental chemistry only studies the behavior of chemicals in the environment at the macro level, but does not involve the chemical mechanism at the atomic and molecular level.
72、The pollution control of solid waste does not belong to the branch of environmental chemistry because it not only involves harmful chemicals, but also includes the regeneration and utilization of chemicals.
73、"Green chemistry" was put forward by American Chemical Society (ACS). Its core is to reduce and eliminate environmental pollution caused by industrial production from the source by using chemical principles.
74、In water environment, sediment is not only the sink but also the source of pollutants.
75、The substances that are easy to cause groundwater pollution are usually substances that are not easy to be adsorbed by the soil.
76、The form of heavy metals is very important for the study of heavy metal pollution. For example, the toxicity of inorganic heavy metals is much greater than that of organic heavy metals.
77、The toxicity of heavy metals varies greatly with different valence states. For example, the toxicity of hexavalent chromium is greater than that of trivalent chromium, while the toxicity of arsenite is greater than that of arsenate.
78、Eutrophication of water body refers to a series of water environmental problems caused by the excess of trace elements in water body, which leads to the excessive growth and reproduction of some or some kind of organisms.
79、Once bio-organic matter is transformed into fossil energy such as petroleum and coal, it will no longer participate in the global carbon cycle.
80、The plasticizer phthalate is easy to release to the environment. With the increase of the side chain, the solubility of this kind of oxygen-containing pollutants is weakened and the degradability is enhanced.
81、In the troposphere, the air movement in low latitude is weak, and in high latitude is strong.
82、The higher the combustion temperature is, the less NOx is formed.
83、The higher the stoichiometric air-fuel ratio, the higher the NOx emission
84、The concentration of methane in the atmosphere is low in summer and high in winter
85、The important heat source of troposphere is the long wave radiation from the ground
86、When the gas block and the surrounding atmosphere reach the neutral equilibrium and stop rising, the height of the maximum mixing layer is the maximum, the maximum mixing height is the minimum in winter and the maximum in summer
87、The smaller the activation energy of free radical reaction is, the smaller the activity is
88、Particulate matter refers to solid particles in the atmosphere, with an aerodynamic diameter of 0.003 - 100 μM
89、Salinity refers to the mass of solid substances (g / kg) contained in 1kg sea water after all carbonates are converted into oxides, bromine iodide is converted into chlorides and organic matter is completely oxidized
90、Estuaries are the places with the most drastic changes in hydrochemical conditions, which in some cases lead to the accumulation of pollutants.
91、The hydrolysis rate constant increased with the increase of pH.
92、Oxidative soil is not conducive to the migration of cadmium in soil.
93、The application of phosphate fertilizer in soil can enhance the mobility of arsenic, so enhance the bioavailability of arsenic.
94、The moisture content has a significant effect on the diffusion of pesticides in soil. For example, when the moisture content of soil is in the range of single molecular layer water, lindane and DDT will no longer volatilize to the atmosphere.
95、The higher the number of cation charge in soil, the stronger the exchange capacity, and the larger the radius of the same valence particle, the stronger the exchange capacity.
96、The ligands are monodentate and polydentate, and the stability of polydentate complexes is higher than that of monodentate complexes.
97、The process of bioaccumulation includes bioconcentration and biomagnification.
98、The characteristics of enzyme catalysis include high specificity, high efficiency and mild external conditions.
99、Passive diffusion needs energy consumption, but does not need carrier participation.
100、Passive facilitation diffusion is not restricted by membrane specific carriers and their number.