10、The significance of the Magna Carta lies not in its ______ provisions，but in its broader impact: it made the king subject to the law. A、revolutionary B、specific C、implicit D、controversial
11、Unlike the oligosaccharins（寡聚糖素）, the five well-known plant hormones are pleiotropic rather than specific; that is, each has more than one effect on the growth and development of plants. 请根据上下文猜一猜，pleiotropic的词义是什么？ A、破坏性 B、单一性 C、无效性 D、多效性
12、Isenberg's recent research on the cognitive processes of senior managers reveals that managers' intuition is neither of these. Rather, senior managers use intuition in at least five distinct ways. 本句强调的部分在哪里？ A、rather 前面 B、rather 后面 C、- D、-
13、While the delegate clearly sought to ______the optimism that has emerged recently, she stopped short of suggesting that the conference was near collapse and might produce nothing of significance. A、substantiate B、dampen C、encourage D、elucidate
14、In the early 1950’s, historians who studied pre-industrial Europe (which we may define here as Europe in the period from roughly 1300 to 1800) began, for the first time in large numbers,to investigate more of the pre-industrial European population than the 2 or 3 percent who comprised the political and social elite: the kings, generals, judges, nobles, bishops, and local magnates who had hitherto usually filled history books. …… One way out of this dilemma was to run to the records of legal courts, for here the voices of the non-elite can most often be heard, as witnesses, plaintiffs, and defendants. These documents have acted as “a point of entry into the mental world of the poor.” Historians such as Le Roy Ladurie have used the documents to extract case histories, which have illuminated the attitudes of different social group (these attitudes include,but are not confined to, attitudes toward crime and the law) and have revealed how the authorities administered justice. …… The extraction of case histories is not, however, the only use to which court records may be put. Historians who study pre-industrial Europe have used the records to establish a series or categories of crime and to quantify indictments that were issued over a given number of years. …… 问题：The author suggests that, before the early 1950’s, most historians who studied pre-industrial Europe did which of the following? A、failed to make distinctions among members of the pre-industrial European political and social elite B、used investigatory methods that were almost exclusively statistical in nature C、inaccurately estimated the influence of the pre-industrial European political and social elite D、confined their work to a narrow range of the pre-industrial European population
15、The use of heat pumps has been held back largely by skepticism about advertisers’ claims that heat pumps can provide as many as units of thermal energy for each unit of electrical energy used, thus apparently contradicting the principle of energy conservation. 问题：If the author's assessment of the use of heat pumps is correct, which of the following best expresses the lesson that advertisers should learn from this case?______ A、Concentrate your advertising firmly on financially relevant issues such as price discounts and efficiency of operation. B、Focus your advertising campaign on vague analogies and veiled implications instead of on facts. C、Do not use facts in your advertising that will strain the prospective client's ability to believe. D、Do not assume in your advertising that the prospective clients know even the most elementary scientific principles.
16、❶Traditionally, the study of history has had fixed boundaries and focal points—periods, countries, dramatic events, and great leaders. ❷It also has had clear and firm notions of scholarly procedure: how one inquires into a historical problem, how one presents and documents one’s findings, what constitutes admissible and adequate proof. ❶Anyone who has followed recent historical literature can testify to the revolution that is taking place in historical studies. ❷The currently fashionable subjects come directly from the sociology catalog: childhood, work, leisure. ❸The new subjects are accompanied by new methods. ❹Where history once was primarily narrative, it is now entirely analytic. ❺The old questions “What happened?” and “How did it happen?” have given way to the question “Why did it happen?” ❻Prominent among the methods used to answer the question “Why” is psychoanalysis, and its use has given rise to psychohistory. ❶Psychohistory does not merely use psychological explanations in historical contexts. ❷Historians have always used such explanations when they were appropriate and when there was sufficient evidence for them. ❸But this pragmatic use of psychology is not what psychohistorians intend. ❹They are committed, not just to psychology in general, but to Freudian psychoanalysis. ❺This commitment precludes a commitment to history as historians have always understood it. ❻Psychohistory derives its “facts” not from history, the detailed records of events and their consequences, but from psychoanalysis of the individuals who made history, and deduces its theories not from this or that instance in their lives, but from a view of human nature that transcends history. ❼It denies the basic criterion of historical evidence: that evidence be publicly accessible to, and therefore assessable by, all historians. ❽And it violates the basic tenet of historical method: that historians be alert to the negative instances that would refute their theses. ❾Psychohistorians, convinced of the absolute rightness of their own theories, are also convinced that theirs is the “deepest” explanation of any event, and that other explanations fall short of the truth. ❶Psychohistory is not content to violate the discipline of history (in the sense of the proper mode of studying and writing about the past); it also violates the past itself. ❷It denies to the past an integrity and will of its own, in which people acted out of a variety of motives and in which events had a multiplicity of causes and effects. ❸It imposes upon the past the same determinism that it imposes upon the present, thus robbing people and events of their individuality and of their complexity. ❹Instead of respecting the particularity of the past, it assimilates all events, past and present, into a single deterministic schema that is presumed to be true at all times and in all circumstances. 1. Which of the following best states the main point of the passage? A、The approach of psychohistorians to historical study is currently in vogue even though it lacks the rigor and verifiability of traditional historical method. B、Traditional historians can benefit from studying the techniques and findings of psychohistorians. C、Areas of sociological study such as childhood and work are of little interest to traditional historians. D、The psychological assessment of an individual’s behavior and attitudes is more informative than the details of his or her daily life. E、History is composed of unique and nonrepeating events that must be individually analyzed on the basis of publicly verifiable evidence.
17、It can be inferred from the passage that one way in which traditional history can be distinguished from psychohistory is that traditional history usually A、views past events as complex and having their own individuality B、relies on a single interpretation of human behavior to explain historical events C、interprets historical events in such a way that their specific nature is transcended D、turns to psychological explanations in historical contexts to account for events (E) relies strictly on data that are concrete and quantifiable
18、It can be inferred from the passage that the methods used by psychohistorians probably prevent them from A、presenting their material in chronological order B、producing a one-sided picture of an individual’s personality and motivations C、uncovering alternative explanations that might cause them to question their own conclusions D、offering a consistent interpretation of the impact of personality on historical events E、recognizing connections between a government’s political actions and the aspirations of government leaders
19、The passage supplies information for answering which of the following questions? A、What are some specific examples of the use of psychohistory in historical interpretation? B、When were the conventions governing the practice of traditional history first established? C、When do traditional historians consider psychological explanations of historical developments appropriate? D、What sort of historical figure is best suited for psychohistorical analysis? E、What is the basic criterion of historical evidence required by traditional historians?
20、The author mentions which of the following as a characteristic of the practice of psychohistorians? A、The lives of historical figures are presented in episodic rather than narrative form. B、Archives used by psychohistorians to gather material are not accessible to other scholars. C、Past and current events are all placed within the same deterministic schema. D、Events in the adult life of a historical figure are seen to be more consequential than are those in the childhood of the figure. E、Analysis is focused on group behavior rather than on particular events in an individual’s life.
21、The author of the passage suggests that psychohistorians view history primarily as A、a report of events, causes, and effects that is generally accepted by historians but which is, for the most part, unverifiable B、an episodic account that lacks cohesion because records of the role of childhood, work, and leisure in the lives of historical figures are rare C、an uncharted sea of seemingly unexplainable events that have meaning only when examined as discrete units D、a record of the way in which a closed set of immutable psychological laws seems to have shaped events E、a proof of the existence of intricate causal interrelationships between past and present events
22、The author of the passage puts the word “deepest” (in the highlighted portion) in quotation marks most probably in order to A、signal her reservations about the accuracy of psychohistorians’ claims for their work B、draw attention to a contradiction in the psychohistorians’ method C、emphasize the major difference between the traditional historians’ method and that of psychohistorians D、disassociate her opinion of the psychohistorians’ claims from her opinion of their method E、question the usefulness of psychohistorians’ insights into traditional historical scholarship
23、In presenting her analysis, the author does all of the following EXCEPT: A、Make general statement without reference to specific examples. B、Describe some of the criteria employed by traditional historians. C、Question the adequacy of the psychohistorians’ interpretation of events. D、Point out inconsistencies in the psychohistorians’ application of their methods. E、Contrast the underlying assumptions of psychohistorians with those of traditional historians.
24、❶It has been known for many decades that the appearance of sunspots is roughly periodic, with an average cycle of eleven years. ❷Moreover, the incidence of solar flares and the flux of solar cosmic rays, ultraviolet radiation, and x-radiation all vary directly with the sunspot cycle. ❸ But after more than a century of investigation, the relation of these and other phenomena, known collectively as the solar-activity cycle, to terrestrial weather and climate remains unclear. ❹For example, the sunspot cycle and the allied magnetic-polarity cycle have been linked to periodicities discerned in records of such variables as rainfall, temperature, and winds. ❺Invariably, however, the relation is weak, and commonly of dubious statistical significance. ❶Effects of solar variability over longer terms have also been sought. ❷The absence of recorded sunspot activity in the notes kept by European observers in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries has led some scholars to postulate a brief cessation of sunspot activity at that time (a period called the Maunder minimum). ❸The Maunder minimum has been linked to a span of unusual cold in Europe extending from the sixteenth to the early nineteenth centuries. ❹The reality of the Maunder minimum has yet to be established, however, especially since the records that Chinese naked-eye observers of solar activity made at that time appear to contradict it. ❺Scientists have also sought evidence of long-term solar periodicities by examining indirect climatological data, such as fossil records of the thickness of ancient tree rings. ❻These studies, however, failed to link unequivocally terrestrial climate and the solar-activity cycle, or even to confirm the cycle’s past existence. ❶If consistent and reliable geological or archaeological evidence tracing the solar-activity cycle in the distant past could be found, it might also resolve an important issue in solar physics: how to model solar activity. ❷Currently, there are two models of solar activity. ❸The first supposes that the Sun’s internal motions (caused by rotation and convection) interact with its large-scale magnetic field to produce a dynamo, a device in which mechanical energy is converted into the energy of a magnetic field. ❹In short, the Sun’s large-scale magnetic field is taken to be self-sustaining, so that the solar-activity cycle it drives would be maintained with little overall change for perhaps billions of years. ❺The alternative explanation supposes that the Sun’s large-scale magnetic field is a remnant of the field the Sun acquired when it formed, and is not sustained against decay. ❻In this model, the solar mechanism dependent on the Sun’s magnetic field runs down more quickly. ❼Thus, the characteristics of the solar-activity cycle could be expected to change over a long period of time. ❽Modern solar observations span too short a time to reveal whether present cyclical solar activity is a long-lived feature of the Sun, or merely a transient phenomenon. The author focuses primarily on A、presenting two competing scientific theories concerning solar activity and evaluating geological evidence often cited to support them B、giving a brief overview of some recent scientific developments in solar physics and assessing their impact on future climatological research C、discussing the difficulties involved in linking terrestrial phenomena with solar activity and indicating how resolving that issue could have an impact on our understanding of solar physics D、pointing out the futility of a certain line of scientific inquiry into the terrestrial effects of solar activity and recommending its abandonment in favor of purely physics-oriented research E、outlining the specific reasons why a problem in solar physics has not yet been solved and faulting the overly theoretical approach of modern physicists
25、Which of the following statements about the two models of solar activity, as they are described in the third paragraph is accurate? A、In both models cyclical solar activity is regarded as a long-lived feature of the Sun, persisting with little change over billions of years. B、In both models the solar-activity cycle is hypothesized as being dependent on the large-scale solar magnetic field. C、In one model the Sun’s magnetic field is thought to play a role in causing solar activity, whereas in the other model it is not. D、In one model solar activity is presumed to be unrelated to terrestrial phenomena, whereas in the other model solar activity is thought to have observable effects on the Earth. E、In one model cycles of solar activity with periodicities longer than a few decades are considered to be impossible, whereas in the other model such cycles are predicted.
26、According to the passage, late seventeenth and early eighteenth-century Chinese records are important for which of the following reasons? A、They suggest that the data on which the Maunder minimum was predicated were incorrect. B、They suggest that the Maunder minimum cannot be related to climate. C、They suggest that the Maunder minimum might be valid only for Europe. D、They establish the existence of a span of unusually cold weather worldwide at the time of the Maunder minimum. E、They establish that solar activity at the time of the Maunder minimum did not significantly vary from its present pattern.
27、The author implies which of the following about currently available geological and archaeological evidence concerning the solar-activity cycle? A、It best supports the model of solar activity described in the highlighted portion. B、It best supports the model of solar activity described in the underlined portion. C、It is insufficient to confirm either model of solar activity described in the third paragraph. D、It contradicts both models of solar activity as they are presented in the third paragraph. E、It disproves the theory that terrestrial weather and solar activity are linked in some way.
28、It can be inferred from the passage that the argument in favor of the model described in the highlighted portion would be strengthened if which of the following were found to be true? A、Episodes of intense volcanic eruptions in the distant past occurred in cycles having very long periodicities. B、At the present time the global level of thunderstorm activity increases and decreases in cycles with periodicities of approximately 11 years. C、In the distant past cyclical climatic changes had periodicities of longer than 200 years. D、In the last century the length of the sunspot cycle has been known to vary by as much as 2 years from its average periodicity of 11 years. E、Hundreds of millions of years ago, solar-activity cycles displayed the same periodicities as do present-day solar-activity cycles.
29、It can be inferred from the passage that Chinese observations of the Sun during the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries A、are ambiguous because most sunspots cannot be seen with the naked eye B、probably were made under the same weather conditions as those made in Europe C、are more reliable than European observations made during this period D、record some sunspot activity during this period E、have been employed by scientists seeking to argue that a change in solar activity occurred during this period
30、It can be inferred from the passage that studies attempting to use tree-ring thickness to locate possible links between solar periodicity and terrestrial climate are based on which of the following assumptions? A、The solar-activity cycle existed in its present form during the time period in which the tree rings grew. B、The biological mechanisms causing tree growth are unaffected by short-term weather patterns. C、Average tree-ring thickness varies from species to species. D、Tree-ring thicknesses reflect changes in terrestrial climate. E、Both terrestrial climate and the solar-activity cycle randomly affect tree-ring thickness.
11、Since the 1980s, experts have been claiming that the skill demands of today’s jobs have outstripped the skills workers possess. Moss and Tilly counter that worker deficiencies lie less in job-specific skills than in such attributes as motivation, interpersonal skills, and appropriate work demeanor. However, Handel suggests that these perceived deficiencies are merely an age effect, arguing that workers pass through a phase of early adulthood characterized by weak attachment to their jobs. As they mature, workers grow out of casual work attitudes and adjust to the workplace norms of jobs that they are more interested in retaining. Significantly, complaints regarding younger workers have persisted for over two decades, but similar complaints regarding older workers have not grown as the earlier cohorts aged. The last sentence serves primarily to A、suggest that worker deficiencies are likely to become more pronounced in the future B、introduce facts that Handel may have failed to take into account C、cite evidence supporting Handel’s argument about workers D、show that the worker deficiencies cited by Handel are more than an age effect E、distinguish certain skills more commonly possessed by young workers from skills more commonly found among mature workers
12、The first flying vertebrates were true reptiles in which one of the fingers of the front limbs became very elongated, providing support for a flap of stretched skin that served as a wing. These were the pterosaurs, literally the "winged lizards." The earliest pterosaurs arose near the end of the Triassic period of the Mesozoic Era, some 70 million years before the first known fossils of true birds occur, and they presumably dominated the skies until they were eventually displaced by birds. Like the dinosaurs, some the pterosaurs became gigantic; the largest fossil discovered is of an individual that had a wingspan of 50 feet or more, larger than many airplanes. These flying reptiles had large, tooth-filled jaws, but their bodies were small and probably without the necessary powerful muscles for sustained wing movement. They must have been expert gliders, not skillful fliers, relying on wind power for their locomotion. Birds, despite sharing common reptilian ancestors with pterosaurs, evolved quite separately and have been much more successful in their dominance of the air. They are an example of a common theme in evolution, the more or less parallel development of different types of body structure and function for the same reason — in this case, for flight. Although the fossil record, as always, is not complete enough to determine definitively the evolutionary lineage of the birds or in as much detail as one would like, it is better in this case than for many other animal groups. That is because of the unusual preservation in a limestone quarry in southern Germany of Archaeopteryx, a fossil that many have called the link between dinosaurs and birds. Indeed, had it not been for the superb preservation of these fossils, they might well have been classified as dinosaurs. They have the skull and teeth of a reptile as well as a bony tail, but in the line-grained limestone in which these fossils occur there are delicate impressions of feathers and fine details of bone structure that make it clear that Archaeopteryx was a bird. All birds living today, from the great condors of the Andes to the tiniest wrens, trace their origin back to the Mesozoic dinosaurs. 12. What does the passage mainly discuss? A、Characteristics of pterosaur wings B、The discovery of fossil remains of Archaeopteryx C、Reasons for the extinction of early flying vertebrates D、The development of flight in reptiles and birds
13、Which of the following is true of early reptile wings? A、They evolved from strong limb muscles. B、They consisted of an extension of skin. C、They connected the front and back limbs. D、They required fingers of equal length.
14、The word "literally" in line 3 is closest in meaning to A、creating B、meaning C、related to D、simplified
15、It can be inferred from the passage that birds were probably dominant in the skies A、in the early Triassic period B、before the appearance of pterosaurs C、after the decline of pterosaurs D、before dinosaurs could be found on land.
16、The author mentions airplanes in line 8 in order to A、illustrate the size of wingspans in some pterosaurs B、compare the energy needs of dinosaurs with those of modern machines C、demonstrate the differences between mechanized flight and animal flight D、establish the practical applications of the study of fossils
17、The word "They" in line 10 refers to A、powerful muscles B、bodies C、jaws D、flying reptiles
18、According to the passage, pterosaurs were probably "not skillful fliers" (lines 10-11) because A、of their limited wingspan B、of their disproportionately large bodies C、they lacked muscles needed for extended flight D、climate conditions of the time provided insufficient wind power
19、In paragraph 2, the author discusses the development of flight in birds as resulting from A、a similarity in body structure to pterosaurs B、an evolution from pterosaurs C、the dominance of birds and pterosaurs over land animals D、a separate but parallel development process to that of pterosaurs
20、The word "classified" in line 21 is closest in meaning to A、perfected B、replaced C、categorized D、protected
21、Which of the following helped researchers determine that Archaeopteryx was not a dinosaur? A、Its tail B、Its teeth C、The shape of its skull D、Details of its bone structure
22、What is the significance of the discovery that was made in southern Germany? A、It is thought to demonstrate that birds evolved from dinosaurs. B、It is proof that the climate and soils of Europe have changed over time. C、It suggests that dinosaurs were dominant in areas rich in limestone. D、It supports the theory that Archaeopteryx was a powerful dinosaur.
1、❶Surprisingly enough, modern historians have rarely interested themselves in the history of the American South in the period before the South began to become self-consciously and distinctively “Southern”—the decades after 1815. ❷Consequently, the cultural history of Britain’s North American empire in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries has been written almost as if the Southern colonies had never existed. ❸The American culture that emerged during the Colonial and Revolutionary eras has been depicted as having been simply an extension of New England Puritan culture. ❹However, Professor Davis has recently argued that the South stood apart from the rest of American society during this early period, following its own unique pattern of cultural development. ❺The case for Southern distinctiveness rests upon two related premises: first, that the cultural similarities among the five Southern colonies were far more impressive than the differences, and second, that what made those colonies alike also made them different from the other colonies. ❻The first, for which Davis offers an enormous amount of evidence, can be accepted without major reservations; the second is far more problematic. ❶What makes the second premise problematic is the use of the Puritan colonies as a basis for comparison. ❷Quite properly, Davis decries the excessive influence ascribed by historians to the Puritans in the formation of American culture. ❸Yet Davis inadvertently adds weight to such ascriptions by using the Puritans as the standard against which to assess the achievements and contributions of Southern colonials. ❹Throughout, Davis focuses on the important, and undeniable, differences between the Southern and Puritan colonies in motives for and patterns of early settlement, in attitudes toward nature and Native Americans, and in the degree of receptivity to metropolitan cultural influences. ❶However, recent scholarship has strongly suggested that those aspects of early New England culture that seem to have been most distinctly Puritan, such as the strong religious orientation and the communal impulse, were not even typical of New England as a whole, but were largely confined to the two colonies of Massachusetts and Connecticut. ❷Thus, what in contrast to the Puritan colonies appears to Davis to be peculiarly Southern—acquisitiveness, a strong interest in politics and the law, and a tendency to cultivate metropolitan cultural models—was not only more typically English than the cultural patterns exhibited by Puritan Massachusetts and Connecticut, but also almost certainly characteristic of most other early modern British colonies from Barbados north to Rhode Island and New Hampshire. ❸Within the larger framework of American colonial life, then, not the Southern but the Puritan colonies appear to have been distinctive, and even they seem to have been rapidly assimilating to the dominant cultural patterns by the late Colonial period. 1. The author is primarily concerned with A、refuting a claim about the influence of Puritan culture on the early American South B、refuting a thesis about the distinctiveness of the culture of the early American South C、refuting the two premises that underlie Davis’ discussion of the culture of the American South in the period before 1815 D、challenging the hypothesis that early American culture was homogeneous in nature E、challenging the contention that the American South made greater contributions to early American culture than Puritan New England did
2、The passage implies that the attitudes toward Native Americans that prevailed in the Southern colonies A、were in conflict with the cosmopolitan outlook of the South B、derived from Southerners’ strong interest in the law C、were modeled after those that prevailed in the North D、differed from those that prevailed in the Puritan colonies
3、It can be inferred from the passage that the author would find Davis’ second premise (in the highlighted portion) more plausible if it were true that A、Puritan culture had displayed the tendency characteristic of the South to cultivate metropolitan cultural models B、Puritan culture had been dominant in all the non-Southern colonies during the seventeenth and eighteen centuries C、the communal impulse and a strong religious orientation had been more prevalent in the South D、the various cultural patterns of the Southern colonies had more closely resembled each other
4、The passage suggests that by the late Colonial period the tendency to cultivate metropolitan cultural models was a cultural pattern that was A、dying out as Puritan influence began to grow B、self-consciously and distinctively Southern C、spreading to Massachusetts and Connecticut D、more characteristic of the Southern colonies than of England
5、Which of the following statements could most logically follow the last sentence of the passage? A、Thus, had more attention been paid to the evidence, Davis would not have been tempted to argue that the culture of the South diverged greatly from Puritan culture in the seventeenth century. B、Thus, convergence, not divergence, seems to have characterized the cultural development of the American colonies in the eighteenth century. C、Thus, without the cultural diversity represented by the America South, the culture of colonial America would certainly have been homogeneous in nature. D、Thus, the contribution of Southern colonials to American culture was certainly overshadowed by that of the Puritans.
6、❶In prehistoric times brachiopods were one of the most abundant and diverse forms of life on Earth: more than 30,000 species of this clamlike creature have been cataloged from fossil records. ❷Today brachiopods are not as numerous, and existing species are not well studied, partly because neither the animal’s fleshy inner tissue nor its shell has any commercial value. ❸Moreover, in contrast to the greater diversity of the extinct species, the approximately 300 known surviving species are relatively uniform in appearance. ❹Many zoologists have interpreted this as a sign that the animal has been unable to compete successfully with other marine organisms in the evolutionary struggle. ❶Several things, however, suggest that the conventional view needs revising. ❷For example, the genus Lingula has an unbroken fossil record extending over more than half a billion years to the present. ❸Thus, if longevity is any measure, brachiopods are the most successful organisms extant. ❹Further, recent studies suggest that diversity among species is a less important measure of evolutionary success than is the ability to withstand environmental change, such as when a layer of clay replaces sand on the ocean bottom. ❺The relatively greater uniformity among the existing brachiopod species may offer greater protection from environmental change and hence may reflect highly successful adaptive behavior. ❶The adaptive advantages of uniformity for brachiopods can be seen by considering specialization, a process that occurs as a result of prolonged colonization of a uniform substrate. ❷Those that can survive on many surfaces are called generalists, while those that can survive on a limited range of substrates are called specialists. ❸One specialist species, for example, has valves weighted at the base, a characteristic that assures that the organism is properly positioned for feeding in mud and similar substrates; other species secrete glue allowing them to survive on the face of underwater cliffs. ❹The fossil record demonstrates that most brachiopod lineages have followed a trend toward increased specialization. ❺However, during periods of environmental instability, when a particular substrate to which a specialist species has adapted is no longer available, the species quickly dies out. ❻Generalists, on the other hand, are not dependent on a particular substrate, and are thus less vulnerable to environmental change. ❼One study of the fossil record revealed a mass extinction of brachiopods following a change in sedimentation from chalk to clay. ❽Of the 35 brachiopod species found in the chalk, only 6 survived in the clay, all of them generalists. ❶As long as enough generalist species are maintained, and studies of arctic and subarctic seas suggest that generalists are often dominant members of the marine communities there, it seems unlikely that the phylum is close to extinction. 1. In the passage, the author is primarily concerned with A、rejecting an earlier explanation for the longevity of certain brachiopod species B、reevaluating the implications of uniformity among existing brachiopod species C、describing the varieties of environmental change to which brachiopods are vulnerable D、reconciling opposing explanations for brachiopods’ lack of evolutionary success E、elaborating the mechanisms responsible for the tendency among brachiopod species toward specialization
7、It can be inferred from the passage that many zoologists assume that a large diversity among species of a given class of organisms typically leads to which of the following? A、Difficulty in classification B、A discontinuous fossil record C、A greater chance of survival over time D、Numerical abundance E、A longer life span
8、The second paragraph makes use of which of the following? A、Specific examples B、Analogy C、Metaphor D、Quotation E、Exaggeration
9、The author suggests that the scientists holding the conventional view mentioned in the second paragraph make which of the following errors? A、They mistakenly emphasize survival rather than diversity. B、They misuse zoological terminology. C、They misunderstand the causes of specialization. D、They catalog fossilized remains improperly. E、They overlook an alternative criterion of evolutionary success.
10、It can be inferred from the passage that the decision to study an organism may sometimes be influenced by A、its practical or commercial benefits to society B、the nature and prevalence of its fossilized remains C、the relative convenience of its geographical distribution D、its similarity to one or more better-known species E、the degree of its physiological complexity
11、❶Present-day philosophers usually envision their discipline as an endeavor that has been, since antiquity, distinct from and superior to any particular intellectual discipline, such as theology or science. ❷Such philosophical concerns as the mind-body problem or, more generally, the nature of human knowledge, they believe, are basic human questions whose tentative philosophical solutions have served as the necessary foundations on which all other intellectual speculation has rested. ❶The basis for this view, however, lies in a serious misinterpretation of the past, a projection of modern concerns onto past events. ❷The idea of an autonomous discipline called “philosophy,” distinct from and sitting in judgment on such pursuits as theology and science turns out, on close examination, to be of quite recent origin. ❸When, in the seventeenth century, Descartes and Hobbes rejected medieval philosophy, they did not think of themselves, as modern philosophers do, as proposing a new and better philosophy, but rather as furthering “the warfare between science and theology” . ❹They were fighting, albeit discreetly, to open the intellectual world to the new science and to liberate intellectual life from ecclesiastical philosophy and envisioned their work as contributing to the growth, not of philosophy, but of research in mathematics and physics. ❺This link between philosophical interests and scientific practice persisted until the nineteenth century, when decline in ecclesiastical power over scholarship and changes in the nature of science provoked the final separation of philosophy from both. ❶The demarcation of philosophy from science was facilitated by the development in the early nineteenth century of a new notion, that philosophy’s core interest should be epistemology, the general explanation of what it means to know something. ❷Modern philosophers now trace that notion back at least to Descartes and Spinoza, but it was not explicitly articulated until the late eighteenth century, by Kant, and did not become built into the structure of academic institutions and the standard self-descriptions of philosophy professors until the late nineteenth century. ❸Without the idea of epistemology, the survival of philosophy in an age of modern science is hard to imagine. ❹Metaphysics, philosophy’s traditional core—considered as the most general description of how the heavens and the earth are put together—had been rendered almost completely meaningless by the spectacular progress of physics. ❺Kant, however, by focusing philosophy on the problem of knowledge, managed to replace metaphysics with epistemology, and thus to transform the notion of philosophy as “queen of sciences” into the new notion of philosophy as a separate, foundational discipline. ❻Philosophy became “primary” no longer in the sense of “highest” but in the sense of “underlying”. ❼After Kant, philosophers were able to reinterpret seventeenth-and eighteenth-century thinkers as attempting to discover “How is our knowledge possible?” and to project this question back even on the ancients. 1. Which of the following best expresses the author’s main point? A、Philosophy’s overriding interest in basic human questions is a legacy primarily of the work of Kant. B、Philosophy was deeply involved in the seventeenth-century warfare between science and religion. C、The set of problems of primary importance to philosophers has remained relatively constant since antiquity. D、The status of philosophy as an independent intellectual pursuit is a relatively recent development.
12、According to the passage, present-day philosophers believe that the mind-body problem is an issue that A、has implications primarily for philosophers B、may be affected by recent advances in science C、has shaped recent work in epistemology D、has little relevance to present-day philosophy E、has served as a basis for intellectual speculation since antiquity
13、According to the author, philosophy became distinct from science and theology during the A、ancient period B、medieval period C、seventeenth century D、nineteenth century E、twentieth century
14、The author suggests that Descartes’ support for the new science of the seventeenth century can be characterized as A、pragmatic and hypocritical B、cautious and inconsistent C、daring and opportunistic D、intense but fleeting E、strong but prudent
15、The author of the passage implies which of the following in discussing the development of philosophy during the nineteenth century? A、Nineteenth-century philosophy took science as its model for understanding the bases of knowledge. B、The role of academic institutions in shaping metaphysical philosophy grew enormously during the nineteenth century. C、Nineteenth-century philosophers carried out a program of investigation explicitly laid out by Descartes and Spinoza. D、Kant had an overwhelming impact on the direction of nineteenth-century philosophy.
16、Vitamin D （ ）can lead to serious bone diseases. A、Definite B、efficiency C、deliberacy D、deficiency
17、The organic matter may partially ( ) , using up the dissolved oxygen in the sediment. A、dedicate B、decompose C、defect D、decorate
18、Its simplicity of appearance is ( ) . The beauty of design, shape, and decoration is no accident: the proportions of the instrument are determined almost entirely by acoustical considerations. A、deceptive B、deadly C、damp D、customary
19、Earth’s surface is not made up of a single sheet of rock that forms a crust but rather a number of “tectonic plates” that fit closely. A、crystal B、cushion C、crush D、mantle
20、Human infants learn to ( ) first before they are able to stand on two feet, which requires good coordination as well as physical development. A、crawl B、scramble C、cramp D、ramble
21、Other behaviors that may indicate some cognition include tool use. Many animals, like the otter who uses a stone to ( ) mussel shells, are capable of using objects in the natural environment as rudimentary tools. A、crash B、cramp C、crack D、corrode
22、Some have proposed a radical, highly controversial and uncertain means to counteract global warming A、counterpart B、neutralize C、counter-narrate D、costume
23、But he and the other Southern leaders were finally released, partly because it was unlikely that a jury from Virginia, a Southern Confederate state, would ( ) them. A、conduct B、evict C、conflict D、convict
24、Studies suggest that precipitation may be greater in cities than in the surrounding countryside; this phenomenon may be due in part to the increased roughness of city terrain, brought on by large structures that cause surface air to slow and gradually ( ). A、converse B、converge C、convent D、convey
25、The realization that the physical self has continuity in time, according to this hypothesis, lays the foundation for the emergence of autobiographical memory. A、consistency B、context C、congestion D、contemporary