1、【简答题】Answer the following questions 1)What are the differences between non-critical reading and critical reading 2)What are the differences between critical reading and critical thinking
2、【简答题】The following questions are designed to introduce you to the concept of critical reading. Complete the diagnostic pretest to see whether you are a critical reader. How do I read? Yes No 1.I tend to read very little beyond what is actually required to pass. 2.I concentrate on memorizing a good deal of what I read. 3.I try to relate ideas I come across in other topics to what I read. 4.When I read an article or book, I try to find out exactly what the author means. 5.Often I find myself questioning what I read. 6.When I read, I concentrate on learning just those bits of information I need to pass. 7.When I am reading, I stop from time to time to reflect on what I am trying to learn 8.When I read, I examine the details carefully to see how they fit in with what’s being said. 9.I like books which challenge me and provide explanations which go beyond lectures. 10.I like books which give definite facts and information which can be learned easily. 11.I read an article straight through from start to finish. 12.I note down all the facts and figures. 13.I note the author’s main arguments. 14.I think about whether the facts support these arguments. 15.I make summary notes to use later. Score: _____________
1.2Module 2 Distingushing facts and opinions
1、【单选题】Mendo not give verbal recognition of the contributions women make to conversation. A、Opinion B、Fact
2、【单选题】Menare more innovative, accepting language change more readily than women. A、Opinion B、Fact
3、【单选题】Duringinfancy and childhood, youngster exposed to high noise levels may have troublefalling asleep A、Opinion B、Fact
4、【简答题】Tostrengthen your ability, change the facts into opinions. 1.fact: Health care costs have risen over the last several years. opinion: 2.fact: More than 58000 Americans lost their lives in the Vietnam War. opinion:
1.3Module 3 Paraphrasing
1、【简答题】Read the following passage and complete the question. The Declaration of Independence Directions: For each reading that follows, test your grasp of the passages by putting them into your own words. Background Information: To make sense of these paragraphs from The Declaration of Independence, July 4, 1776, one must understand that it is part of a political manifesto adopted by the Continental Congress proclaiming the independence of the 13 British colonies in America from Great Britain. When in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the laws of nature and of nature’s god entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation. We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or abolish it, and to institute new Government, having its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shown that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and inspirations pursuing invariable the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their Future security. 1)When in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another… 2)…and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the laws of nature and of nature’s god entitle them… 3)…a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation. 4)We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of happiness 5)That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. 6)That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or abolish it… 7)…and to institute new Government, having its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. 8)Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes… 9)…and accordingly all experience hath shown that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. 10)But when a long train of abuses and inspirations pursuing invariable the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their Future security. (Adopted from Paul Richard, Linda Elder (2016). How to Read a Paragraph: The Art of Close Reading, Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press.)
2、【简答题】Read the following passage, and choose the best answer. The Caravaggio Mystery Italian painter Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (1571-1610), usually known simply as “Caravaggio,” had a dramatic life, of which parts remain mysterious to scholars even today. Why, then, would it be a surprise that mysteries also surround his work? For example, The Taking of Christ, one of his paintings that had been considered lost since the eighteenth century, was rediscovered in 1990. It had hung, seemingly unrecognized, in the dining room of the Society of the Jesuits in Dublin, Ireland, for more than fifty years. The discovery that the painting was, indeed, a Caravaggio, led many to wonder how such a treasure could be hidden—seemingly in plain sight. The first clue historians have about The Taking of Christ is in the 1603 accounts of an Italian nobleman, Ciriaco Mattei, who paid 125 “scudi” for “a painting with its frame of Christ taken in the garden.” At the time, Caravaggio’s style, with its striking use of light and dark, was admired and often imitated by both students and fellow artists. However, trends in the art world come and go, and two centuries later, Caravaggio’s work had fallen out of favor with collectors. In fact, it wouldn’t be until the 1950s that a Caravaggio “renaissance” occurred, and interest in the artist was renewed. In the meantime, The Taking of Christ had traveled far and wide. Ironically, it was the Mattei family itself that originally misidentified the work, though several centuries after the original purchase. In 1802, the family sold it as a Honthorst to a Scottish collector. This collector kept it in his home until his death in 1921. By 1921, The Taking of Christ—now firmly attributed to Gerard van Honthorst—was auctioned off in Edinburgh for eight guineas. This would have probably been a fair price if the work had been a van Honthorst; for a true Caravaggio, though, it was the bargain of the century. An Irish doctor bought the painting and donated it to the Dublin Jesuit Society the following decade. From the 1930s onward, The Taking of Christ hung in the offices of the Dublin Jesuits. However, the Jesuits, who had a number of old paintings in their possession, decided to bring in a conservator to discuss restoring them in the early 1990s. Sergio Benedetti, the Senior Conservator at the National Gallery of Ireland, went to the building to examine the paintings and oversee their restoration. Decades of dirt, including smoke from the fireplace above which it hung, had to be removed from the painting before Benedetti began to suspect that the painting was not a copy of the original, but the original itself. Two graduate students from the University of Rome, Francesca Cappelletti and Laura Testa, were primarily responsible for verifying that Caravaggio did, in fact, create this version of the painting. Over years of research, they found the 1603 Mattei accounts. The verification of the painting, though, went far beyond this circumstantial evidence. Certifying that a painting came from a certain artist’s hand is not easy, though forensic science that wouldn’t have been available in the 1920s helped to attribute the work to Caravaggio definitively. The canvas underwent a number of treatments. It was X-rayed and scanned with an infrared light. The cracks on the surface of the painting (known in the industry as “craquelure”) were studied. Furthermore, The Taking of Christ underwent much analysis by art historians, who studied the form and color in the painting to determine its authenticity. For example, Caravaggio never used sketches to set up the composition of his paintings. Instead, he made marks with the end of his brush as he painted—marks that can still be visible today. Of course, the verification of the painting required entire teams of people, in addition to the three mentioned above, and took years. By 1993, the announcement was finally made that the long-lost Caravaggio had been found. Rather than sell the painting, which is most likely worth millions of dollars, the Jesuits decided to make it available to the nation of Ireland for viewing. Thus, the painting is on “indefinite loan” to the National Gallery of Ireland. Nevertheless, the painting continues its travels as it features in exhibitions around the world, from the United States to Amsterdam. In 2010, it even travelled back to Rome to be displayed for the 400th anniversary of the painter’s death. A fitting tribute, many would say, to a mysterious master. Question Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in paragraph 6? Why? a. The National Gallery of Ireland now owns the painting. b. The National Gallery of Ireland bought the painting from the Jesuits. c. The National Gallery of Ireland can display the painting, but the Jesuits still own it. d. The National Gallery of Ireland can display the painting as long as they allow it to travel.
1.4Module 4 Identifying the topic
1、【填空题】Complete the following expressions or sentences by using the target words listed below with the help of the Chinese in brackets. Change the form if necessary（答案请全部使用小写）: 1. the _________ (巨大) of loss 2. increase _________ (显著地) overnight 3. _________ (大气) pressure 4. work with greater _________ (紧张) 5. give _________ (证据) in support of a theory 6. birds _________ (迁徙) in winter 7. speak more _________ (明确地) 8. _________ (增强) the electric current 9. a disease of frequent _________ (发生) 10. be in control of your own _________ (命运) 11. strong _________ (动机) to succeed 12. _________ (年度的) bonus 13. be _________ (释放) from prison 14. a(n) _________ (恶毒的) enemy to defeat 15. create a(n) _________ (有关环境方面) safe society 16. _________ (交替) between rain and sunshine 17. the most _________ (突出的) feature of the book 18. his _________ (反应) to the news 19. _________ (大幅度地) cutting staff 20. traffic _________ (规则) 21. a(n) _________ (最小的) charge for the service 22. _________ (暴露) of the body to strong sunlight 23. _________ (保持) youth vigor 24. _________ (混合) the ingredients 25. They are free _________ (最后) 26. _________ (谢绝) an invitation 27. Man is a reasoning _________ (生物).
2、【简答题】Read the Text and answer the following questions: 1. How does the writer develop his main ideas about global warming in terms of organization? 2. Which structure does the writer use to illustrate the effects of global warming? 3. How does the writer arrange the effects and what are the signal words? 4. How many types of causes of global warming does the writer classify into? What are they? 5. How is Paragraph 11 organized? What are the signal words? 6. According to the writer, what are the three areas affected by global warming? 7. What are the four gases that have a large impact in the atmosphere? 8. According to some scientists, how many percent of the Great Barrier Reef will disappear by 2075 if the earth continues on the path it is on?
3、【简答题】Translate the following sentences from the text into Chinese: 1. He called warming “the great geophysical experiment”. He said, “The experiment is to load the atmosphere with as much carbon dioxide as possible, add a few other harmful gases, and see what happens.” 2. Minimal efforts made to reduce the release of greenhouse gases, specifically carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels, increase the rate and intensity of global warming. 3. Carbon in the atmosphere allows plants to go through photosynthesis more rapidly, allowing allergens to grow in number. 4. It is the most abundant heat-absorbent gas besides water vapor, which is not considered as a greenhouse gas because it rains back to the earth in a continuous cycle. 5. Ross Gelspan, author of Boiling Point, a book about earth’s climate change from global warming, spoke about his book to the public in 2004 stating, “Climate issues will eventually tear holes in the global economy.”
4、【简答题】Review the text—Global Warming and Its Effects, and mark the paragraph numbers according to the organization of the text. The first and last ones have been done for you.
1、【单选题】Do you know the purpose of this course?- A、to understand the reading at superficial level B、to encourage passive learning C、to confine students to the textbooks D、to increase students’ knowledge of critical reading and critical thinking,
2、【单选题】Which of the followings are the features of critical reading? A、passive, just the facts B、gullible, reactive C、purposeful, active
3、【单选题】Critical thinking and critical reading help students take the _____ of their learning, and form their _______independently in the context of their immediate experiences A、ownership, ideologies B、ideologies, ownerships C、ownerships, ideology D、ideology, ownership.
4、【单选题】Critical reading is a technique for discovering information and ideas that are ______, active, and _________. A、careful, reflectively B、carefully, reflective C、careful, reflective D、carefully, reflectively
5、【单选题】Statements about future events are _______ even when those events seem very probable. A、fact B、facts C、opinion D、opinions
6、【单选题】_______ is "anything that is done or happens; anything actually existent; any statement strictly true". Whereas ______ is defined as "indicating a belief, view, sentiment, conception A、fact, opinion B、facts, opinion C、opinions, fact D、facts, opinions
1、【单选题】St. Paul’s Cathedral is situated on the north bank of the River Thames- A、Fact B、Opinion
2、【单选题】St Paul’s Cathedral is a stunning building. A、Fact B、Opinion
3、【单选题】The view of London from the Dome of St. Paul’s is beautiful. A、Fact B、Opinion
4、【单选题】St. Christopher Wren designed the distinctive dome in 1710. A、Fact B、Opinion
1、【简答题】Re-Entry Students Re-Entry students have a positive effect on college students, instructors, and the community. They are called “re-entry” students because they have been out of school for a period of time and have come back. Often students take college courses and then leave school for a variety of reasons: jobs, military training, family obligations, indecision about careers. No longer are college classes primarily made up of 18- to 20-year-old recent high school graduates. In many colleges, the average age of all students is approaching 30 years. Occasionally a student graduates from college for the first time at the age of 70 years or older. For younger students, re-entry students are often models of dedication and hard work. Returning men and women help set a mature tone in the classroom, and their life experiences add to the enjoyment of class discussions. Instructors often notice improved student interaction in a class with a wide variety of ages and backgrounds. Students who have had careers in the workplace, the military, or as homemakers add a wealth of information and perspective to a class. Finally, the community benefits from better-educated citizens of all ages. Private businesses and government agencies get workers with better skills and the community gets better-informed citizens and voters. When students re-enter college to improve their lives, they also improve the lives of countless others.
1、【简答题】1)The telephone as we know it today will probably disappear and be replaced by a multifunctional communication workstation Signal word: _____________ It implies: ________________ 2)Becoming the largest group of oppressed people is always frightening for those above you, those under you, and those who have been as your side. Signal word: ____________ It implies: ________________ 3)Even though English is generally considered the internal language of business. It is nevertheless a mistake to assume that every foreign businessperson either knows English or can understand American usage. Signal word: ____________ It implies: ________________ 4)Perhaps the single greatest factor affecting family life in the twenty-first century will be the spread of HIV and AIDS. Signal word: ____________ It implies: ________________ 5)While a victim of sexual assault may come out of the ordeal without a scrape, the psychological scars are inescapable. Signal word: ____________ It implies: ________________
1、【单选题】Carpeting may initially be less expensive than installing hardwood floors. While carpeting may look fantastic when it is first laid, in a relatively short period of time, it can become badly soiled. If the carpet is not cleaned regularly, these stains can permanently mar its beauty. Once this happens, the only recourse is to replace the stained carpet with a new one. In the end, then, hardwood flooring is a better buy than carpeting. A、Carpeting may initially be less expensive than installing hardwood floors. B、If the carpet is not cleaned regularly, these stains can permanently mar its beauty. C、In the end, then, hardwood flooring is a better buy than carpeting.
2、【单选题】Herbal remedies are gaining the respect of the medical profession. Teas, poultices, and rubs, made from various parts of plants have been used for generations by many cultures in the world. Such remedies, however, have been shunned by many medical professionals in the industrial world who have focused instead on chemicals for cures, sometimes re-inventing the wheel. With the more recent interest in the survival of the rainforests, however, there has been increasing attention paid to the plants which serve as remedies for a host of ailments. A、Herbal remedies are gaining the respect of the medical profession. B、Teas, poultices, and rubs, made from various parts of plants have been used for generations by many cultures in the world. C、With the more recent interest in the survival of the rainforests, however, there has been increasing attention paid to the plants which serve as remedies for a host of ailments.
3、【单选题】Can the common cold be cured? For centuries humans have sought ways to alleviate the discomfort associated with this minor illness, trying everything from special baths to special healing stones. Today, thanks to a focused research effort, science is beginning to make headway in finding a cure. Doctors are able to replicate the cold and small steps have been made in producing medicine which can at least reduce the time people must endure the effects of this disease. A、Can the common cold be cured? B、For centuries humans have sought ways to alleviate the discomfort associated with this minor illness, trying everything from special baths to special healing stones. C、Today, thanks to a focused research effort, science is beginning to make headway in finding a cure.
4、【单选题】The technique for eating a steamed lobster is relatively simple. The most obvious place to begin the culinary journey is with the claws. Once the claws have been devoured, one is ready to tackle the tail. To obtain meat here, open the tail by making a slice down the center and popping out the entire section. Last but not least is the delicate meat to be found in the smaller limbs just behind the claws. This part of the lobster offers a relatively large amount of easily obtainable meat with relatively little effort. How to eat a lobster, then, is fairly simple. A、The technique for eating a steamed lobster is relatively simple. B、This part of the lobster offers a relatively large amount of easily obtainable meat with relatively little effort. C、How to eat a lobster, then, is fairly simple.
2.1Module 5 Identifying the argument
1、【填空题】Read the passage about argument identification and fill in the blanks in the passage: Argument identification and argument analysis cannot be separated very cleanly – that is, they are ______1_____procedures. We need to identify when an argument is being made and what it is about before we can analyze its structure. In fact, as we shall see, the first step in analyzing an argument involves the _____2______of its major parts. I shall provide some simple rules to follow here. Most rules will be coupled with a “question” which should help in the application of that rule to some given argument. An argument is any group of ______3_____that support or give evidence for another proposition. From this definition of an argument we can extract three important points: a) an argument’s structure is going to consist of two basic components: the ______4_____, or what we are being persuaded to do or believe; and the main _____5______, or the evidence that is supposed to persuade us; b) an argument has a function – to try and persuade someone of something using reason; and, c) there will be some structural relation between the ____6_______ and the conclusion – the way in which the evidence supports the conclusion. We should note here that the evidence or reason supporting the conclusion does not have to be good – bad evidence or reasons make for a bad argument, but it is still an argument.
2、【简答题】Do these passages contain arguments? If so, what are their conclusions? 1. Cutting the interest rate will have no effect on the stock market this time round as people have been expecting a rate cut all along. This factor has already been reflected in the market. Yes. The conclusion is that this time, cutting interest rate will have no effect on the stock market. So it is raining heavily and this building might collapse. But I don't really care. 2. Although the first statement starts with “so” it does not indicate a conclusion. Virgin would then dominate the rail system. Is that something the government should worry about? Not necessarily. The industry is regulated, and one powerful company might at least offer a more coherent schedule of services than the present arrangement has produced. The reason the industry was broken up into more than 100 companies at privatisation was not operational, but political: the Conservative government thought it would thus be harder to renationalise. 3. All of Russia’s problems of human rights and democracy come back to three things: the legislature, the executive and the judiciary. None works as well as it should. Parliament passes laws in a hurry, and has neither the ability nor the will to call high officials to account. State officials abuse human rights (either on their own, or on orders from on high) and work with remarkable slowness and disorganisation. The courts almost completely fail in their role as the ultimate safeguard of freedom and order. 4. Most mornings, Park Chang Woo arrives at a train station in central Seoul, South Korea's capital. But he is not commuter. He is unemployed and goes there to kill time. Around him, dozens of jobless people pass their days drinking soju, a local version of vodka. For the moment, middleaged Mr Park would rather read a newspaper. He used to be a brick layer for a small construction company in Pusan, a southern port city. But three years ago the country's financial crisis cost him that job, so he came to Seoul, leaving his wife and two children behind. Still looking for work, he has little hope of going home any time soon. 5. For a long time, astronomers suspected that Europa, one of Jupiter's many moons, might harbour a watery ocean beneath its ice-covered surface. They were right. Now the technique used earlier this year to demonstrate the existence of the Europan ocean has been employed to detect an ocean on another Jovian satellite, Ganymede, according to work announced at the recent American Geo-physical Union meeting in San Francisco. 6. There are no hard numbers, but the evidence from Asia’s expatriate community is unequivocal. Three years after its handover from Britain to China, Hong Kong is unlearning English. The city's gweilos (Cantonese for “ghost men”) must go to ever greater lengths to catch the oldest taxi driver available to maximize their chances of comprehension. Hotel managers are complaining that they can no longer find enough English- speakers to act as receptionists. Departing tourists, polled at the airport, voice growing frustration at not being understood.
2.2Module 6 Identifying the logic
1、【单选题】 A、 B、 C、 D、
2、【单选题】 A、 B、 C、 D、
3、【填空题】Fill in the blanks based on the concept of “identifying the logic” Identifying the logic means identifying the _____1______ the author is trying to resolve, the ______2______ s/he uses or develops for that _____3______, the _____4_____ s/he brings to bear on the issue, and the quality of the _____5_____.
4、【判断题】In language, Mandarin is marked, while Cantonese is unmarked.
5、【简答题】Answer the following question in a brief way. How can we interpret “marked” and “unmarked” in Marked Theory as is mentioned in this module?
6、【简答题】Read the article “Marked Women, Unmarked men”again, and do the role-playing with your partners as follows. Instructions: Role-playing the writer is a good way to get a personal sense of whether we have really grasped the logic of a text. The following samples are for your reference: Questioner: What made you write this essay? The writer:... Questioner: Under what circumstances do you think marked theory could be connected with gender issue? The writer: ... (Continue dialogue...)
2.3Module 7 Comparing and contrasting
1、【单选题】The following are statements about comparing and contrasting within the three pictures shown in this module. Choose the right one among them. A、The first picture states that Theresa May is less stylish than Pincess Kate. B、The image of the heel in the second picture is interpreted as a symbolic weapon by the media to refer to the female prime minister May’s being in power. C、The third picture suggests that as a female prime minister, May would spend less time on dressing up than her male counterpart Cameron. D、We can infer from the three pictures that the female PM Theresa May pays much more attention on her clothing styles than the economic and political achievements of the UK.
2、【填空题】Fill in the blanks based on the application of “comparing and contrasting”. In _____1_____, however, comparison and contrast often appear _____2_____, because people generally _____3_____ two things that are _____4_____ in certain ways and ______5_____ in others.
3、【简答题】Answer the following questions in a brief way. 1. In this module, how many examples are cited when doing the comparing and contrasting in gender issue? Please name some of them. 2. To a large extent, the Chinese language is a gendered language. For example, the radical for women “女” is a significant part of many Chinese characters. How many of these characters are there? What connotations do they have?
2.4Module 8 Classifying or categorizing
1、【填空题】Read the following passages and complete the exercises below: A Van Gogh’s Trip from the Attic to the Museum Amsterdam—For roughly a century, the painting Sunset at Montmajour was considered a fake. It was stored in an attic and then held in a private collection, unknown to the public and dismissed by art historians. But on Monday, the Van Gogh Museum declared the work a genuine product of the master, calling it a major discovery. Sunset at Montmajour, painted in Arles in 1888, “is a work from the most important period of his life, when he created his substantial masterpieces, like sunflowers, The Yellow House and The Bedroom”, said the museum’s director, Axel Ruger, in an interview. The painting depicts dusk in the hilly, forested landscape of Montmajour, in Provence, with wheat fields and the ruins of a Benedictine abbey in the distance. The area around Montmajour was a subject that van Gogh revisited often during his time in Arles. “Once or two early van Goghs do sometimes come out of the woodwork now and again, but from the mature period, it’s very rare.” Said James Roundell, and art dealer and the director of modern pictures for the Dickinson galleries in London and New York, which deals in Impressionist and modern art. Mr. Roundell said it would be hard to predict precisely how much Sunset at Montmajour would fetch on the market, but expected it would be “ in the tends of millions and quite a few of them”. He added. “It’s not the iconic status of something like the Sunflower, or the Portrait of Dr. Gachet.”which sold at an auction for $ 82.5 million in 1990. Fred Leeman, a former chief curator of the museum and now an independent art historian and van Gogh scholar based here. Said the work, which he called “100 percent genuine”, contributes to an alternative understanding of the artist.” We have the impression of van Gogh as a very modern painter, but he’s working in the tradition of 19th-century landscape painting.” He said. The painting has been in the collection of family for several years, and Mr. Ruger said that because of privacy concerns, he couldn’t release any more information about the owners. Until 1901, the painting was in the collection once owned by van Gogh’s brother. Theo, said Marije Vellekoop, the head of collections, research and presentation for the museum. His widow, Johanna van Gogh-Bonger, sold it to a Paris art dealer. In 1908, the art dealer sold it to a Norwegian collector, Ms. Vellekoop said. Shortly after that, she added, “it was declared a fake, or not an original”, and the Norwegian collector banished it to his attic, where it stayed until he died in 1970. The current owners purchased it thereafter. They took it to the Van Gogh Museum in 1991, Mr. Ruger said, but at the time, experts there said they did not think it was authentic. Two years ago, the owners took it back to the museum, and researchers from the museum have been examining it ever since, Mr. Ruger said. Louis van Tilborgh, the museum’s senior researcher, said that since 1991, the museum has developed several new techniques for identifying and authenticating works of art. He said that all those methods were put to use when researchers had the chance to look at this painting again. According to Mr. van Tiborgh, it was painted on the same type of canvas with the same type of underpainting van Gogh used for at least one other painting of the same area, The Rocks. The work was also listed as part of Theo van Gogh’s collection in 1890. It has “180” painted on the back, which corresponds to the number in the collection inventory. “That was the clincher,” he said. Mr. Ruger added: “This time, we have topographical information, plus a number of other factors that have helped us to establish authenticity. Research is so much more advanced now, so we could come to a very different conclusion.” The last major van Gogh brought to light, the museum said, was the 1888 painting Tarascon Stagecoach, in the 1930s. The date of Sunset at Montmajour has been identified as July 4, 1888. In a letter van Gogh wrote to his brother the next day, he seemed to have described the scene: Yesterday, at sunset, I was on a stony heath, where very small, twisted oaks grow, in the background a ruin on the hill and wheat fields in the valley. It was romantic, it couldn’t be more so, a la Monticelli, the sun was pouring its very yellow rays over the bushes and the ground, absolutely a shower of gold. And all the lines were beautiful; the whole scene had charming nobility.” (He was referring to the works of Adolphe Monticelli, one of the first painters van Gogh admired when he moved to Pairs in 1886, and who played a role in van Gogh’s to move to Provence.) Sunset at Montmajou is comparable in size to Sunflowers, which was painted the same year and sold for $ 39.9 million in 1987 at an auction at Christie’s in London. Van Gogh moved to Arles in February 1888 and spent time exploring the landscapes in Provence, and doing work “en plein air”, or in nature. He was particularly fascinated by the flat landscape around the hill of Montmajour, with its rocky outcropping and hay-colored fields. In a letter dated July 1888, he said that he had been to Montmajour, at least 30 times “to see the view over the plain”. Mr. Leeman, the historian, said that “in hindsight, many pointers in his letters and entries in catalogs of the 1900s have been linked to other paintings or misidentified.” Adding, “Here, we see a painting that fits those descriptions exactly.” The painting will be on view at the museum for one year, starting on Sept. 24, as part of the current exhibition, “ Van Gogh at work”, which focuses on other new discoveries about the painter’s artistic development. Mr Ruger said the current owners have not indicated what they intend to do with it after that. Fill in each blank with one word from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Sunset at Montmajou, a 1)_____________ of trees and sky in the south of France in van Gogh’s familiar thick brush strokes, was painted in 1888 but had been lying in the 2) ______________of a 3)___________collector who brought the painting in 1908 because it was 4)_______________as a 5)___________. The painting was unveiled at the Van Gogh Museum in 6) ____________ on Monday, with Axel Ruger, the 7) __________, describing it as a “Once in a life time experience”. The painting was 8) ____________based on comparisons with van Gogh’s 9) ____________ and a letter he wrote in which he described the painting. It could be 10) ____________to the exact day it was painted because Vincent described it in a letter to his brother. Then, and said he painted it the previous day—July 4, 1888. A) dismissed F) landscape K）director B) dated G) genuine L）banished C) authenticated H) techniques M) curator D) fake I) portrait N) Amsterdam E) Norwegian J) attic O) Paris
2、【填空题】The Man Who Heard His Painbox Hiss Ossien Ward 1.Russian-born artist Wassily Kandinsky is widely credited with making the world’s first truly abstract painting, but his artistic ambition went even further. He wanted to evoke sound through sight and create the painterly equivalent of a symphony that would stimulate not just the eyes but the ears as well. A new exhibition at the Tate Modern, Kandinsky: Path to Abstraction, shows not only how he removed all recognizable subjects and objects from Western art around 1911, but also how he achieved a new pictorial form of music. 2.Knadinsky is believed to have had synaesthesia, a harmless condition that allows a person to appreciate sounds, colours or words with two or more senses simultaneously. In his case, colours and painted marks triggered particular sounds or musical notes and vice versa. The involuntary ability to hear colour, see music, or even taste words results from an accidental cross-wiring in the brain that is found in one in 2,000 people, and in many more women than men. 3.Synaesthesia is a blend of the Greek words for together (syn) and sensation (aesthesis). The earliest recorded case comes from the Oxford academic and philosopher John Locke in 1690, who was bemused by “a studious blind man” claiming to experience the colour scarlet when he heard the sound of a trumpet. 4.The idea that music is linked to visual art goes back to ancient Greece, when Plato first talked of tone and harmony in relation to art. The spectrum of colors, like the language of musical notation, has long been arranged in stepped scales, so it is still unclear whether or not Beethoven, who called B minor the black key and D major the orange key, or Schuert, who saw E minor as “a maiden robed in white with a rose-red bow on her chest”, were real synaesthetes. 5.There is still debate whether Kandinsky was himself a natural synaesthete, or merely experimenting with this confusion of senses in combination with the colour theories of Goethe, Schopenhauer, and Rudolf Steiner, in order to further his vision for a new abstract art. 6.Sceptics have dismissed synaesthesia as nothing more than subjective invention, like a bad case of metaphor affliction——after all, anyone can feel blue, see red, eat a sharp cheese or wear a loud tie. Recently, however, a group of neuroscientists has been able to prove that synaesthetes do indeed “see” sound. A series of brain scans showed that, despite being blindfolded, sunaesthetes showed “visual activity” in the brain when listening to sounds. Now all that is left is to find the gene that may be responsible. 7.Despite the lack of medical proof for Kandinsky’s synaesthesia, the correlation between sound and colour was a lifelong preoccupation for the artist. He recalled hearing a strange hissing noise when mixing colours in his paintbox as a child, and later became an accomplished cello player, which he said represented one of the deepest blues of all instruments. Sean Rainbird, curator of the Tate’s forthcoming Kandinsky exhibition, says, “My feeling is that he was quite internalized.” To have painted the largest work he ever made, Composition VII, in just three days, shows that this language was quite internalized.” 8.Kandinsky discovered his synaesthesia at a performance of Wagner’s opera Lohengrin in Moscow: “I saw all my colours in spirit, before my eyes. Wild, almost crazy lines were sketched in front of me.” In 1911, after studying and setting in Germany, he was similarly moved by a Schoenberg concert and finished painting Impression III (Konzert) two days later. The abstract artist and the atonal composer became friends, and Kandinsky even exhibited Schoenberg’s paintings in the first Blue Rider exhibition in Munich in the same year. 9.If Kandinsky had a favorite color, it must have been blue: “The deeper the blue becomes, the more strongly it calls man towards the infinite, awakening in him a desire for pure and, finally, for the supernatural… The brighter it becomes, the more it loses its sound, until it turns into silent stillness and becomes white.” Despite his theories that the universe was in thrall to supernatural vibrations, auras, and “thought-forms”, many of which came from arcane, quasi-religious movements such as theosophy, Kandinsky’s belief in the emotional potential of art is still convincing today. Our response to his work should mirror our appreciation of music and should come from within, not from its likenesses to the visible world: “Color is the keyboard. The eye is the hammer. The soul is the piano with its many stings.” 10.Kandinsky achieved pure abstraction by replacing the castles and hilltop towers of his early landscapes with stabs of paint or, as he saw them, musical notes and chords that would visually,” sing” together. In this way, his swirling compositions were painted with polyphonic swathes of warm, high-pitched yellow that he might balance with a patch of cold, sonorous blue or a silent, black void. Rainbird describes how the artist used musical vocabulary “to break down the external walls of his own art”. 11.After 1910, he split his work into three categories: Impressions, Improvisations, and Compositions, often adding musical titles to individual pictures such as Fugue, Opposing Chords, or Funeral March. He also conceived three synaesthetic plays combining the arts of painting, music, theatre, and dance into Wagnerian total works of art or Gesamtkunstwerks, which were designed to unify all the senses. 12.Kandinsky undoubtedly led the European revival in synaesthesia but there are many other examples of sonic influence in modern art, from Munch’s The Scream and Whistler’s Nocturnes and Harmonies to Ezra Pound’s Cantos and T.S. Eliot’s Four Quartets. Yet Kandinsky’s curious gift of colour-bearing, which he successfully translated onto canvas as “visual music”, to use the term coined by the art critic Roger Fry in 1912, give the world another way of appreciating art that would be inherited by many more poets, abstract artists, and psychedelic rockers throughout the rest of the disharmonic 20th century. 13.Wassily Kandinsky continued painting until hos death, on December 13th, 1944. 14.Here then are Kandinsky’s guidelines so that you can experience synaesthesia for yourself: 15.Lend your ears to music, open your eyes to painting, and …stop thinking! Just ask yourself whether the work has enabled you to ‘work about’ into a hitherto unknown world. If the answer is yes, what more do you want?” 16.“I applied streaks and blobs of color onto the canvas with palette knife and I made them sing with all the intensity I could…” 3. Each of the following ten statements contains information given in one of the paragraphs (1-16) in the text. Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived. You may choose a paragraph more than once. A. _______________Kandinsky remembered hearing his paintbox hiss when he was a child. B. ______________Kandinsky designed plays with different kinds of art forms, including painting, music, theatre, and dance. C. _____________ Plato was the first one who linked music to visual art, when he talked of tone and harmony in relation to art. D. ____________ Visual music, coined by Roger Fry, was used to refer to Kandinsky’s gift of colour-hearing. E. ____________ Influenced by theosophy, Kandinsky thought that the universe was ruled by supernatural vibrations, auras, and “thought-forms”. F. ____________ Kandinsky not only removed all recognizable subjects and objects from Western art around 1911, but also achieved a new pictorial form of music. G. ____________ The first record of synaesthesia was made by philosopher John Locke in 1690 H. _____________Neuroscientists don’t see synaesthesia as subjective intention, because they have proved that some people do see sound. I. ____________Kandinsky wanted to evoke sound through sight and create the painterly equivalent of a symphony that would stimulate not just the eyes but the ears as well. J. _____________Only one in 2,000 people has the gift of color-hearing, an ability which is processed by more women than men.
3、【简答题】Complete the following table based on your understanding of the text Date/Year of the Events Events of Sunset of Montmajour July 4, 1888 It was painted in Arles 1890 1901 1908 1970 1991 2011 Sept. 24, 2013
4、【简答题】Complete the following diagram based on your understanding of the text. How many examples of synaesthesia can you find in the passage? → 1) Kandinsky heard a strange hissing noise when mixing colors in his painbox as a child. _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
1、【单选题】A comparison points out the ____________ between two or more persons or things of __________ class, while a contrast, the _____________ between them. A、similarities...the same...differences B、similarities...different...differences C、differences...the same ...similarities D、differences...different...similarities
2、【单选题】Which of the following are not comparing and contrasting? A、men and women B、tea and coffee C、computer and medicine D、black and white
3、【多选题】Which of the following sentences bear logical fallacies? (More than one answer) A、Girls are not good at science. B、Exercise is good. Therefore everybody should exercise. C、A flood happened after the comet appeared; therefore, the comet caused the flood. D、Mike is stupid, so he can’t be successful.
1、【填空题】In Module 6, those eye-catching highlights such as sentences in bold like "Wears Jump Suit" and "Sensible shoes", as well as those lines with capitalized words are used to ____________________ of the whole text.
2、【填空题】In Module 7, comparing and contrasting as a reading strategy would be used to compare elements related to ________ and __________ within the text, through which students can grasp the key points of ___________ and ___________ issue highlighted in the text and develop __________, which is also an effective way for the enhancement of critical thinking.
1、【填空题】Match Column A with Column B based on what you’ve learnt in the text “Gender Bias in Language” in module 7. (1) a women is valued for _____ a. businessman (2) a men is valued for _____ b. appearance (3) a shrew_____ c. woman (4) a shrewd _____ d. achievements
2、【填空题】Boyfriends can be of many types. Choose from the list of different types of boyfriend to match with the traits and personalities. Types of Boyfriends A : Mr. Sneaky B : Mr. Right C : Mr. Big Foot D : Mr. Dreamer E : Mr. Family Man F : Mr. Grumpy G : Mr. Parasite a. ( ) ——Perfect marriage material, this type of guy is always ready to help you with household chores, cuddle you and pamper you. He is well behaved and just a sweet darling. However, he is not so popular with guys, who consider him a sort-boiled egg. Even you may feel that he is a little too compassionate and lacks willpower. b. ( ) ——This guy has a lot to complain about everything and anything in the world, and he considers everybody is either stupid or evil. He rarely ventures out of the house and is a predictable jerk. It is very difficulties to fare with such a person for long. c. ( )——Big, strong and dumb, this type of boyfriend is quite handy when it comes to rearranging furniture hauling heavy stuff in a jiffy. He is easily fooled too, but you have to bear with heavy sweating and be careful, lest he breaks you in half while hugging you. d. ( )——A couch potato and probably a drug addict, you can easily get hands on him. However, he thinks he has a right to use and abuse everything you own and will hardly be able to fulfill your dreams. Get rid of him quickly, or he will sponge off a big chunk of your money very quickly. e. ( ) ——This type of guy loves to sneak on you and may even hire a private detective to keep an eye on everything you do. He might use hidden cameras and my even go to the lengths of desiring to know your each and every word. You can never be sure whether he is having the time of his life or is really having pangs of guilt. f. ( ) ——Probably a struggling artist or a philosopher or simply a buffoon, this type of guy has no idea of what his career and growth prospects are and how he is going to achieve his goals, yet, he always dreams of being rich and famous someday. He is good at telling interesting tall tales but may turn Mr. Grumpy after sometime. g. ( ) ——The man of everyone’s dreams and answer to everyone’s prayer, he is rich, handsome, has perfect manners, owns almost every luxury in the world and loves you like God. However, he has long been hunted to extinction.
3、【判断题】Biologically it is females that are marked, while in language and culture, it is males that are marked.
4、【判断题】In language, Mandarin is marked, while Putian dialect is unmarked.
1、【简答题】Do the following passages contain arguments? If so, what are their conclusions? a. Cutting the interest rate will have no effect on the stock market this time round as people have been expecting a rate cut all along. This factor has already been reflected in the market. Yes. The conclusion is that this time, cutting interest rate will have no effect on the stock market. So it is raining heavily and this building might collapse. But I don’t really care. b. Although the first statement starts with “so” it does not indicate a conclusion. Virgin would then dominate the rail system. Is that something the government should worry about? Not necessarily. The industry is regulated, and one powerful company might at least offer a more coherent schedule of services than the present arrangement has produced. The reason the industry was broken up into more than 100 companies at privatisation was not operational, but political: the Conservative government thought it would thus be harder to renationalise. c. All of Russia’s problems of human rights and democracy come back to three things: the legislature, the executive and the judiciary. None works as well as it should. Parliament passes laws in a hurry, and has neither the ability nor the will to call high officials to account. State officials abuse human rights (either on their own, or on orders from on high) and work with remarkable slowness and disorganisation. The courts almost completely fail in their role as the ultimate safeguard of freedom and order. d. Most mornings, Park Chang Woo arrives at a train station in central Seoul, South Korea's capital. But he is not commuter. He is unemployed and goes there to kill time. Around him, dozens of jobless people pass their days drinking soju, a local version of vodka. For the moment, middle-aged Mr Park would rather read a newspaper. He used to be a brick layer for a small construction company in Pusan, a southern port city. But three years ago the country's financial crisis cost him that job, so he came to Seoul, leaving his wife and two children behind. Still looking for work, he has little hope of going home any time soon. e. For a long time, astronomers suspected that Europa, one of Jupiter's many moons, might harbour a watery ocean beneath its ice-covered surface. They were right. Now the technique used earlier this year to demonstrate the existence of the European ocean has been employed to detect an ocean on another Jovian satellite, Ganymede, according to work announced at the recent American Geo-physical Union meeting in San Francisco.
2、【简答题】Read the following passage and complete the exercise. The Difference Types of Job Interviews Job interviews are all about finding the right fit between the employer and potential employee. Job hunters going into an interview can expect one of two primary styled of interviewing. The following interview styles were techniques used by hiring managers. A number of the human resources department usually conducts the screening interview, which is meant to weed out unqualified candidates. Providing facts about your skills is more important than establishing rapport. Interviewers will work from an outline of points they want to cover, looking for inconsistencies in your resume and challenging your qualifications. Provide answers to their questions, and never volunteer any additional information. That information could work against you. Stress interviews usually are a deliberate attempt to see how you handle yourself. The interviewer may be sarcastic or argumentative, or may keep you waiting. Expect this to happen and, when it does, don’t take it personally. Calmly answer each question as it comes. Ask for clarification if you need it and never rush into an answer. The interviewer also may lapse into silence at some point during the questioning. Recognize this as an attempt to unnerve you. Sit silent until the interviewer resumes the questions. If a minute goes by, ask if he or she needs clarification of your last comments. The same rules apply in lunch interviews as in those held at the office. The setting may be more casual, but remember it is a business lunch, and you are being watched carefully. Use the lunch interview to develop common ground with your interviewer. Follow his or her lead both in selection of food and in etiquette. a. List and briefly explain the three major types of job interviews. b. What are the purposes of the different types of job interviews?
3、【简答题】Read the following article and outline the logic within it. Developing Economy or Protecting the Environment Some people think that the urgent task is to develop economy on a large scale. First, they hold that many people, especially in rural areas, are living in poverty. As a result, many children drop out of school and can’t afford even the compulsory education. Second, they believe only by further balance and developing our economy can we get rid of poverty and gain the overall prosperity. On the other hand, many people insist that environmental protection should be a top priority. First, they claim that we have only one mother earth, if our ecological environment is heavily polluted or ruined, we could not even survive on this planet. Second, they believe, it’s the rapid and advanced development of economy that leads to the present situation that most parts of the world are polluted. If the problem left unsolved, one day we may have nothing to drink, let alone develop our economy. In my opinion, both economy and environmental protection are our urgent tasks now. Without economic development, we should remain backward. Moreover, we might be conquered or bullied by other powerful countries. And without environmental protection, we should lose our home. Therefore, the best solution is to develop environmental-protection-oriented industries and agriculture so as to kill two birds with one stone.
3.1Module 9 Explicating the thesis
1、【简答题】1. What do you think “Christmas Day” and “Morning” symbolize respectively? 2. What makes the habit of getting up in the early morning still cling to Rob? 3. What is the writing technique here? 4. What is the theme of this text? 5. How did the author advertise the thesis of her story—“Love alone could awaken love?” 6. Do you agree that only love can awaken love? What is the essence of true love? Give your reasons. 7. Is love the solution to all the problems in the world today? Comment. 8. How do you translate the title of the story? 9. Give more examples of figure-ground reversals, tell what they may mean, and what change will happen if figure and ground are not reversed. 10. Attitudes towards love of god to humans, love between parents and children, love between husband and wife, and love between siblings, are different. In what way are they different between Chinese culture and Western culture?
2、【简答题】Passage 1: Television changed my life forever. We stopped eating dinner at the dinning-room table after my mother found out about TV trays. We kept the TV trays behind the kitchen door and served ourselves from pots on the stove. Setting and clearing the dinning-room table used to be my job; setting and clearing meant unfolding and wiping our TV trays, then, when we’d finished, wiping and folding our TV trays. Dinner was served in time for one program and finished in time for another. During dinner we used to talk to one another. Now television talked to us. If you had something you absolutely had to say, you waited until the commercial, which is, I suspect, where I learned to speak in thirty-second bursts. As a future writer, it was good practice in editing my thoughts. As a little girl, it was lonely as hell. Once in a while, I’d pass our dinning-room table and stop, thinking I heard our ghosts sitting around talking to one another, saying stuff. Thesis: ________________________________________________________________________ Passage 2: People interrupt for various reasons. One is believing that what they have to say is more important than what the other person is saying. Another reason people interrupt is that they believe they know what the other person is going to say and want the person to know that they already know. People may also interrupt when they are not paying close attention. The interruption communicates a lack of sensitivity, a superior attitude, or both. People need to be able to verbalize their ideas and feelings fully; inappropriate interruptions are bound to damage their self-concepts or make them hostile – and possibly both. Simply stated, whatever you have to say is seldom so important that it requires you to interrupt a person. When you do interrupt, you should realize that you may be perceived as putting a person down. The more frequent the interruptions, the greater the potential harm. Thesis: ________________________________________________________________________
3.2Module 10 Making inferences
1、【填空题】Read the following passages, and choose the best answer by making inferences. 1.In Sweden dog owners must pay for any damage their dog does. A Swedish Kennel Club official explains what this means; if your dog runs out on the road and gets hit by a passing car， you, as the owner, have to pay for any damage done to the car, even if your dog has been killed in the accident. From the text it can be inferred that in Sweden ____ . A. dogs are welcome in public places B. keeping dogs means asking for trouble C. many car accidents are caused by dogs D. people care much about dogs 2. One pioneer, in particular, who disagrees is David Tebbutt, the founder of Computertown UK. Although many people see this as a successful attempt to bring people closer to the computer, David does not see it that way. He says that Computertown UK was formed for just the opposite reason, to bring computers to people and make them "people -literate."...People don't have to learn computer terms, but the experts have to explain in plain language. The computers are becoming "people- liberate". We can infer from the text that "computer-literate" means _____ . A. being able to afford a computer B. being able to write computer programs C. working with the computer and finding out its value D. understanding the computer and knowing how to use it 3.It doesn't surprise us to hear of a 29-year-old university president or a 35-year-old grandmother , or a 70-year-old man who has become a father for the first time. Public ideas are changing. If a 25-year-old man becomes general manager of a big firm, the writer of the text would most probably consider it ____ . A. normal B. wonderful C. unbelievable D. unreasonable 4. Robert Friedlander, an American, arrived in Xi'an on his bicycle trip across Asia which started last December in New Delhi, India. When he was 11, he read the book Marco Polo and made up his mind to visit the Silk Road. Now, after 44 years, he was on the Silk Road in Xi'an and his early dreams were coming true.Robert Friedlander's next destination were Lanzhou, Dunhuang, Urumqi, etc. He will complete his trip in Pakistan. Friedlander can be said to be _____ . A. clever B. friendly C. hardworking D. strong-minded
2、【填空题】Matching Paragraph Headings The reading passage has seven paragraphs: A – G. Choose the most suitable paragraph headings A – G from the list of headings beneath the passage. Write the appropriate numbers (i –ix) in the text boxes below the headings. There are more paragraph headings than paragraphs so you will not use them all. Yoruba Town （Adopted from：http://www.ieltsbuddy.com/paragraph-headings.html） A. The Yoruba people of Nigeria classify their towns in two ways. Permanent towns with their own governments are called “ilu”, whereas temporary settlements, set up to support work in the country are “aba”. Although ilu tend to be larger than aba, the distinction is not one of size, some aba are large, while declining ilu can be small, but of purpose. There is no “typical” Yoruba town, but some features are common to most towns. B. In the 19th century most towns were heavily fortified and the foundations of these walls are sometimes visible. Collecting tolls to enter and exit through the walls was a major source of revenue for the old town rulers, as were market fees. The markets were generally located centrally and in small towns, while in large towns there were permanent stands made of corrugated iron or concrete. The market was usually next to the local ruler’s palace. C. The palaces were often very large. In the 1930’s, the area of Oyo’s palace covered 17 acres, and consisted of a series of courtyards surrounded by private and public rooms. After colonisation, many of the palaces were completely or partially demolished. Often the rulers built two storey houses for themselves using some of the palace grounds for government buildings. D. The town is divided into different sections. In some towns these are regular, extending out from the center of the town like spokes on a wheel, while in others, where space is limited, they are more random. The different areas are further divided into compounds called “ile”. These vary in size considerably from single dwellings to up to thirty houses. They tend to be larger in the North. Large areas are devoted to government administrative buildings. Newer developments such as industrial or commercial areas or apartment housing for civil servants tends to be build on the edge of the town. E. Houses are rectangular and either have a courtyard in the center or the rooms come off a central corridor. Most social life occurs in the courtyard. They are usually built of hardened mud and have roofs of corrugated iron or, in the countryside, thatch. Buildings of this material are easy to alter, either by knocking down rooms or adding new ones. And can be improved by coating the walls with cement. Richer people often build their houses of concrete blocks and, if they can afford to, build two storey houses. Within compounds there can be quite a mixture of building types. Younger well-educated people may have well furnished houses while their older relatives live in mud walled buildings and sleep on mats on the floor. F. The builder or the most senior man gets a room either near the entrance or, in a two storied house, next to the balcony. He usually has more than one room. Junior men get a room each and there are separate rooms for teenage boys and girls to sleep in. Younger children sleep with their mothers. Any empty room are used as storage, let out or, if they face the street, used as shops. G. Amenities vary. In some towns most of the population uses communal water taps and only the rich have piped water, in others piped water is more normal. Some areas have toilets, but bucket toilets are common with waste being collected by a “night soil man”. Access to water and electricity are key political issues. 窗体顶端 Match the correct heading to the paragraph A-G. 1- Town facilities 2-Oyo’s palace 3-Urban divisions 4-Architectural home styles 5- Types of settlements 6- Historical foundations 7 - Domestic arrangements 8- City defenses 9- Various changes 窗体底端 10- Government buildings A______B_______C________D_______ E______F_______G_________
3、【简答题】Answer the question briefly according to what you have learnt in this module: What is an inference?
4、【简答题】The following story is presented as a brain twister. Read and answer the questions below: We had visitors a week or so ago. Houseguests. Six of them. One of them was Oscar who teaches geology at the University in Utrecht. Now I love my houseguests. . But when they arrived I discovered that two of them couldn't even walk into the house and had to be carried in. And then I found out they couldn't talk, either. Can you infer what happened in the story? What would you have done if you'd been in the author’s place?
5、【简答题】Using your best inference strategies, make an inference about the following statements. 1.I wouldn't eat after that two-year-old if I were you. Inference: 2.For Valentine’s Day, my fantastic neighbor gave his wife a poem that took him about two seconds to write. Sheesh. Inference: 3. man ran after a retreating bus, waving his briefcase frantically. Inference: 4. If she died, I wouldn’t go to her funeral. Inference: 5. Jake almost wished that he hadn’t listened to the radio. He went to the closet and grabbed his umbrella even though he would feel silly carrying it to the bus stop on such a sunny morning. Inference: 6. Hey! What happened to all the school construction money taken from the taxpayers? It paid for this toilet the money was flushed down. Inference: 7. As you give a speech in front of a large audience, you realize that people are laughing behind their hands and pointing to the region below your waist. Inference: 8. No, Honey, I don’t want you to spend a lot of money on my birthday present. Just having you for a husband is the only gift I need. In fact, I’ll just drive my old rusty bucket of bolts down to the mall and buy myself a little present. And if the poor old car doesn't break down, I’ll be back soon. Inference:
3.3Module 11 Analyzing
1、【填空题】Fill in the blanks with what you have understood in this module. When reading an article, we should ____1____until all the facts have been gathered and considered and look for ___2____ to support their assumptions, claims or beliefs, we should also be willing to explore ___3.____and be receptive to ____4____.
2、【填空题】You are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it．Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived．You may choose a paragraph more than once．Each paragraph is marked with a letter .Answer the questions by marking the corresponding letter ． Earthquakes A) An earthquake is one of the most terrifying phenomena that nature can dish up. We generally think of the ground we stand on as “rock-solid” and completely stable. An earthquake can shatter (粉碎)that perception instantly, and often with extreme violence. B) Up until relatively recently, scientists only had unproven guesses as to what actually caused earthquakes. Even today there is still a certain amount of mystery surrounding them, but scientists have a much clearer understanding. There has been enormous progress in the past century. Scientists have identified the forces that cause earthquakes, and developed technology that can tell us an earthquake’s magnitude and origin. The next hurdle is to find a way of predicting earthquakes, so they don’t catch people by surprise. In this article, we’ll find out what causes earthquakes, and we’ll also find out why they can have such a devastating effect on us. C) An earthquake is a vibration that travels through the earth’s crust. Technically, a large truck that rumbles down the street is causing a mini-earthquake, if you feel your house shaking as it goes by; but we tend to think of earthquakes as events that affect a fairly large area, such as an entire city. All kinds of things can cause earthquakes: volcanic eruptions, meteor(流星)impacts, underground explosions (an underground nuclear test, for example), collapsing structures (such as a collapsing mine). But the majority of naturally-occurring earthquakes are caused by movements of the earth’s plates. D) We only hear about earthquakes in the news every once in a while, but they are actually an everyday occurrence on our planet. According to the United States Geological Survey, more than 3 million earthquakes occur every year. That’s about 8,000 a day, or one every 11 seconds! The vast majority of these 3 million quakes are extremely weak. The law of probability also causes a good number of stronger quakes to happen in uninhabited places where no one feels them. It is the big quakes that occur in highly populated areas that get our attention. E) Earthquakes have caused a great deal of property damage over the years, and they have claimed many lives. In the last hundred years alone, there have been more than 1.5 million earthquake-related fatalities. Usually, it’s not the shaking ground itself that claims lives; it’s the associated destruction of man-made structures and other natural disasters it causes, such as tsunamis, avalanches (雪崩)and landslides. F) The biggest scientific breakthrough in the history of seismology—the study of earthquakes—came in the middle of the 20th century, with the development of the theory of plate tectonics(筑造学).Scientists proposed the idea of plate tectonics to explain a number of peculiar phenomena on earth, such as the apparent movement of continents over time, the clustering of volcanic activity in certain areas and the presence of huge ridges at the bottom of the ocean. G) The basic theory is that the surface layer of the earth—the lithosphere—is comprised of many plates that slide over the lubricating asthenosphere layer. At the boundaries between these huge plates of soil and rock, three different things can happen. H) Plates can move apart. If two plates are moving apart from each other, hot, molten rock flows up from the layers of mantle below the lithosphere. This magma (岩浆) comes out on the surface (mostly at the bottom of the ocean), where it is called lava (熔岩).As the lava cools, it hardens to form new lithosphere material, filling in the gap. This is called a divergent plate boundary. I) Plates can push together. If the two plates are moving toward each other, one plate typically pushes under the other one. This plate below sinks into the lower mantle layers, where it melts. At some boundaries where two plates meet, neither plate is in a position to push under the other, so they both push against each other to form mountains. The lines where plates push toward each other are called convergent plate boundaries. J) Plates slide against each other. At other boundaries, plates simply slide by each other—one moves north and one moves south, for example. While the plates don’t drift directly into each other at these transform boundaries, they are pushed tightly together. A great deal of tension builds at the boundary. K) We understand earthquakes a lot better than we did even 50 years ago, but we still can’t do much about them. They are caused by fundamental, powerful geological processes that are far beyond our control. These processes are also fairly unpredictable, so it’s not possible at this time to tell people exactly when an earthquake is going to occur. The first detected earthquake waves will tell us that more powerful vibrations are on their way, but this only gives us a few minutes’ warning, at most. L) So what can we do about earthquakes? The major advances over the past 50 years have been in preparedness, particularly in the field of construction engineering. In 1973, the Uniform Building Code, an international set of standards for building construction,7 added7 specifications7 to7 strengthen7 buildings7 against7 the7 force7 of7 earthquake7 waves.7 This7 includes7 strengthening7 support7 material7 as7 well7 as7 designing buildings so they are flexible enough to absorb vibrations without falling or deteriorating. It’s very important to design structures that can undergo this sort of attack, particularly in earthquake -prone areas. M) Another component of preparedness is educating the public. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) and other government agencies have produced several brochures explaining the processes involved in an earthquake and giving instructions on how to prepare your house for a possible earthquake, as well as what to do when a quake hits. N) In the future, improvements in prediction and preparedness should further minimize the loss of life and property associated with earthquakes. But it will be a long time, if ever, before we’ll be ready for every substantial earthquake that might occur. Just like severe weather and disease, earthquakes are an unavoidable force generated by the powerful natural processes that shape our planet. All we can do is increase our understanding of the phenomenon and develop better ways to deal with it. 1. Earthquake-related fatalities are usually caused by buildings，collapse and other ensuing natural disasters, not by the shaking ground itself. 2. Besides movements of the earth’s plates, other forces such as volcanic eruptions, meteor impacts and so on, can also cause earthquakes. 3. Earthquakes actually occur every day; most of them are not big enough to get our attention. 4. People generally think the ground beneath their feet is completely stable, but earthquakes shatter that idea in no time. 5. We cannot prevent earthquakes but we can actively find better ways to face them. 6. Earthquakes are hardly predictable, and people cannot be told when an earthquake is going to occur. 7. Scientists have found out forces that cause earthquakes through years of efforts. 8. Architects now have designed flexible buildings to minimize the damages of earthquakes. 9. Scientists use the theory of plate tectonics to explain the apparent movement of continents over time. 10. The convergent plate boundaries refer to the lines where plates push toward each other.
3、【简答题】Answer the question briefly according to what you have learnt in this module: What is analyzing?
4、【简答题】Read the text and answer the questions below: 1. What is the topic of the text? 2. What are the six claims mentioned in the text? 3. Before you read the text, have you heard of the six claims on language and gender? How do the first three differ from the second any other similar claims? 4. What’s wrong with the first three claims according to the text? 5.According to Para4 “ Many of us were taught as children that some of the behavior attributed to males in claims 1 through 4 is rude and shouldn’t be done. “When you were a child, were you told to use or to avoid using a certain type of language because it’s too masculine/feminine? 6. According to Para20, in what kind of societies is it impossible to learn whether sex or sociological role is the distinctive characteristic for a certain linguistic usage? Why? 7. How does Napoli define “reliable results” in para 24? Why is language data alone not enough in sociolinguistic studies? 8. What conclusion can we draw after you read the whole text?
3.4Module 12 Synthesizing
1、【简答题】Read the articles below and, in a paragraph of not more than 150 words, discuss the importance of non-verbal communication. As far as the technical study of body language goes, perhaps the most influential pre-twentieth-century work was Charles Darwin's The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals published in 1872. This spawned the modern studies of facial expressions and body language and many of Darwin's ideas and observations have since been validated by modern researchers around the world. Since that time, researchers have noted and recorded almost one million non-verbal cues and signals. Albert Mehrabian found that the total impact of a message is about 7 per cent verbal (words only) and 38 per cent vocal (including tone of voice, inflection and other sounds) and 55 per cent non-verbal. Professor Birdwhistell made some similar estimates of the amount of non-verbal communication that takes place amongst humans. He estimated that the average person actually speaks words for a total of about ten or eleven minutes a day and that the average sentence takes only about 2.5 seconds. Like Mehrabian, he found that the verbal component of a face-to-face conversation is less than 35 per cent and that over 65 per cent of communication is done non-verbally. Most researchers generally agree that the verbal channel is used primarily for conveying information, while the non-verbal channel is used for negotiating interpersonal attitudes, and in some cases is used as a substitute for verbal messages. For example, a woman can give a man a 'look to kill'; she will convey a very clear message to him without opening her mouth. Regardless of culture, words and movements occur together with such predictability that Birdwhistell says that a well-trained person should be able to tell what movement a man is making by listening to his voice. In like manner, Birdwhistell learned how to tell what language a person was speaking, simply by watching his gestures. Many people find difficulty in accepting that humans are still biologically animals. Homo sapiens is a species of primate, a hair-less ape that has learned to walk on two limbs and has a clever, advanced brain. Like any other species, we are dominated by biological rules that control our actions, reactions, body language and gestures. The fascinating thing is that the human animal is rarely aware of his postures, movements and gestures that can tell one story while his voice may be telling another. (Allan Pease wrote the book this is from. It is called Body language. The extract is from pages 9 and 10. It was published in London by Sheldon Press in 1995.) VERBAL AND NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION: DIFFERENT KINDS OF SOCIAL ACT 1. Bodily contact is of interest since it is the most primitive kind of social act, and is found in all animals. In addition to aggressive and sexual contacts there are various methods of influence, as when others are pushed, pulled or led. There are symbolic contacts, such as patting on the back, and-the various ways of shaking hands. 2. Physical proximity is important mainly in relation to intimacy and dominance. The normal degree of proximity varies between cultures and every species of animal has its characteristic social distance. 3. Orientation signals interpersonal attitudes. If person A is sitting at a table, B can sit in several different places. If he is told that the situation is cooperative he will probably sit at next to A; if he is told he is to compete, negotiate, sell something or interview A, he will sit opposite A; if he is told to have a discussion or conversation he usually chooses across the corner 4. Bodily posture is another signal which is largely involuntary, but which can communicate important social signals. There are distinctive ' superior ' (or dominant) and ' inferior' (or sub. missive) postures. 5. Gestures are movements of hands, feet or other parts of the body. Some are intended to communicate definite messages; others are involuntary social cues which may or may not be correctly interpreted by others. 6. Head-nods are a rather special kind of gesture, and have two distinctive roles. They act as ' reinforcers', i.e. they reward and encourage what has gone before, and can be used to make another talk more, for example. 7. Facial expression can be reduced to changes in eyes, brows, mouth, and so on. The face is an area which is used by animals to communicate emotions and attitudes to others; for humans it does not work so well since we control our facial expression, and may smile sweetly while seething within. 8. Eye movements have an effect quite out of proportion to the physical effort exerted. 9. Appearance. Many aspects of personal appearance are under voluntary control, and a great deal of effort is put into controlling them - clothes, hair and skin; other aspects can be modified to some extent by clothes and plastic surgery. 10. Non-linguistic aspects of speech. The same words may be said in quite different ways, conveying different emotional expressions, and even different meanings, as when ' yes ' is used as a polite way of saying 'no'. 11. Speech is the most complex, subtle and characteristically human means of communication. (From a book by Michael Argyle titled The psychology of interpersonal behaviour. It was published in London by Pelican in 1967 and this extract was from pages 36-37.) The Body is the Message: A Science Called Kinesics Within the last few years a new and exciting science has been uncovered and explored. It is called body language. Both its written form and the scientific study of it have been labelled kinesics. Body language and kinesics are based on the behavioural patterns of non-verbal communication, but kinesics is still so new as a science that its authorities can be counted on the fingers of one hand. Clinical studies have revealed the extent to which body language can actually contradict verbal communications. A classic example is the young woman who told her psychiatrist that she loved her boyfriend very much while nodding her head from side to side in subconscious denial. Body language has also shed new light on the dynamics of interfamily relationships. A family sitting together, for example, can give a revealing picture of itself simply by the way its members move their arms and legs. If the mother crosses her legs first and the rest of the family then follows suit, she has set the lead for the family action, though she, as well as the rest of the family, may not be aware she is doing it. In fact, her words may deny her leadership as she asks her husband or children for advice. But the unspoken, follow-the-leader due in her action gives the family set-up away to someone knowledgeable in kinesics. (This is from a book called Body Language. It was published in London by Pan in 1971 The book was written by Julius Fast and the extract is from pages 11 & 12.) We speak with our vocal organs, but we converse with our entire bodies; conversation consists of much more than a simple interchange of spoken words. The term paralanguage is increasingly commonly used to refer to non-verbal communicating activities which accompany verbal behavior in conversation. Anyone with a professional interest in spoken language is likely, sooner or later, to have to take an interest in paralanguage too. Paralinguistic phenomena are neither idiosyncratic and personal, on the one hand, nor generally human, on the other. They must, therefore, be culturally determined, and so, as one would expect, they differ from social group to social group. They differ a great deal, and the differences go with language differences, even with dialect differences within languages, though they sometimes cut across linguistic boundaries. These aspects of human behaviour are bound therefore to interest language teachers, psychiatrists, anthropologists, speech therapists, and of course linguists and phoneticians too. Their systematic investigation started comparatively recently, though a desultory interest in them is of long standing. However, a great deal has been done during the last few years - particularly, interestingly enough, by, or in collaboration with, psychiatrists; and I would like here to summarize, sometimes critically, what has so far been accomplished in this area. Paralinguistic phenomena are non-linguistic elements in conversation. They occur alongside spoken language, interact with it, and produce together with it a total system of communication. They are not necessarily continuously simultaneous with spoken words. They may also be interspersed among them, or precede them, or follow them; but they are always integrated into a conversation considered as a complete linguistic inter-action. The study of paralinguistic behavior is part of the study of conversation: the conversational use of spoken language cannot be properly understood unless paralinguistic elements are taken into account. (The extract is from an article by David Abercrombie called 'Paralanguage'. The article was published on pages 55-59 of volume 3 of the journal British Journal of Disorders of Communication. This extract is from pages 55 to 56.) GESTURES A gesture is any action that sends a visual signal to an onlooker. To become a gesture, an act has to be seen by someone else and has to communicate some piece of information to them. It can do this either because the gesturer deliberately sets out to send a signal - as when he waves his hand - or it can do it only incidentally - as when he sneezes. The hand-wave is a Primary Gesture, because it has no other existence or function. It is a piece of communication from start to finish. The sneeze, by contrast, is a secondary, or Incidental Gesture. Its primary function is mechanical and is concerned with the sneezer's personal breathing problem. In its secondary role, however, it cannot help but transmit a message to his companions, warning them that he may have caught a cold.
2、【简答题】Read the articles below and, in a paragraph of not more than 250 words, answer the question: how many languages are there in the world? There is no agreed total for the number of languages spoken in the world today. Most reference books give a figure of 4,000 to 5,000, but estimates have varied from 3,000 to 10,000. To see why there is such uncertainty, we need to consider the many problems facing those who wish to obtain accurate information, and also the reasons (linguistic, historical and cultural) which preclude a simple answer to the question "What counts as a language?" (Written by David Crystal, on page 284 of The Cambridge encyclopaedia of language. It was published by Cambridge University Press, in Cambridge, UK, in 1987). All speakers of English can talk to each other and pretty much understand each other. Yet no two speakers speak exactly alike. Some differences are due to age, sex, state of health, size, personality, emotional state and personal idiosyncrasies. That each person speaks somewhat differently from all others is shown by our ability to recognise acquaintances by hearing them talk. The unique characteristics of the language of an individual speaker are referred to as the speaker's idiolect. English may then be said to consist of 400,000,000 idiolects, or the number equal to the number of native speakers. Beyond these individual differences, the language of a group of people may show regular variations from that used by other groups of speakers of that language. When the English spoken by speakers in different geographical regions and from different social groups shows systematic differences, the groups are said to speak different dialects of the same language. The dialects of a single language may thus be defined as mutually intelligible forms of that language which differ in systematic ways from each other (From: An introduction to language, by Victoria Fromkin and Robert Rodman. The book was written in 1983 and was published by Holt-Saunders in New York. The extract comes from page 245.) A further point that has become clear as a result of the investigation of regional dialects is the impossibility of drawing a sharp line of demarcation between dialects of the same neighbouring languages. In those areas of the world where there have been frequent changes of political boundaries or where the principal lines of trade and communication cross political boundaries, what is generally regarded as a dialect of one language may shade more or less imperceptibly into a dialect of another? For example, there are dialects spoken on both sides of the Dutch-German border which are equally close to (or equally remote from) both standard Dutch and standard German. If we feel that they must be dialects of either the one or the other language, we are victims of the traditional view of the relationship between language and dialect. It may be added that judgements on questions of this kind are only too frequently influenced by political or nationalist prejudices. (From John Lyons: Introduction to theoretical linguistics, published in 1968 by Cambridge University Press in Cambridge. The extract can be found on page 35.) The often-quoted dictum, "a language is a dialect with an army and a navy", attests the importance of political power and the recognised sovereignty of a nation-state in the recognition of a variety as a language rather than a dialect (From: The Oxford companion to the English language, 1992, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, by Tom McArthur, page 291.) It should also be made clear here that, mutual unintelligibility is not evidence that the "native" language or mother tongue of two speakers is not the same. For, as in the case of Mandarin, Chung King and Cantonese dialects of Chinese, and many dialects of Arabic, it is entirely possible that people can be native speakers of the same language and yet not understand each other. (From: An introduction to language and communication, page 137. This book was published in 1994 by MTI Publications. It was published in Cambridge, UK and was written by Ashley James, Jane Richards and Harry Roberts.)
1、【简答题】A woman walks into a hospital clutching her abdomen and yelling at her husband, who trails behind her carrying a large bag. Inference: ______________________________________________________________________
2、【简答题】You're driving on the highway, listening to the radio, and a police officer pulls you over. Inference: ______________________________________________________________________
1、【简答题】Men use more nonstandard forms (such as “ain’t”) than women.
2、【简答题】Men are more innovative, accepting language change more readily than women.
1、【简答题】Passage 1 Write the thesis for the passage underneath: In 1995, the American Academy of Pediatrics declared that “advertising directed at children is inherently deceptive and exploits children under eight years of age.” The academy did not recommend a ban on such advertising because it seemed impractical and would infringe upon advertisers’ freedom of speech. Today the health risks faced by the nation’s children far outweigh the needs of its mass markers. Congress should immediately ban all advertisements aimed at children that promote foods high in fat and sugar. Thirty years ago Congress banned cigarette ads from radio and television as public health measure – and those ads were directed at adults. Smoking has declined ever since. A ban on advertising unhealthy foods to children would discourage eating habits that are not only hard to break, but potentially life-threatening. Moreover, such a ban would encourage the fast-food chains to alter the recipes for their children’s meals. Greatly reducing the fat content of McDonald’s Happy Meals, for example, could have an immediate effect on the diet of the nation’s kids. Every month more than 90 percent of the children in the United States eat at McDonald’s. Thesis: ________________________________________________________________________
1、【单选题】Passage 2 Choose the best answer by making inferences. At 9:00 Dick Spivak's bank telephoned and said his payment was late. “The check is in the post,” Dick replied quickly. At 11:45 Dick left for a 12:00 meeting across town. Arriving late, he explained that traffic had been bad. That evening, Dick's girlfriend wore a new dress. He hated it. “It looks just great on you,” he said. Three lies in one day! Yet Dick Spivak is just an ordinary man. Each time, he told himself that sometimes the truth causes too many problems. Most of us tell much the same white lies, harmless untruths that help to save trouble. How often do we tell white lies? It depends in part on our age, education, and even where we live. According to one US study, women are more truthful than men, and honesty increases as we get older. While most people use little white lies to make life easier, the majority of Americans care about honesty in both public and personal life. They say that people today are less honest than they were ten years ago. Although it is believed that things are getting worse, lying seems to be an age-old human problem. The French philosopher Vauvenarges, writing in the eighteenth century, touched on the truth when he wrote, “All men are born truthful and die liars.” 1. When the writer says “Dick Spivak is just an ordinary man,” he means _______. A、it is common that people tell white lies B、Dick could do nothing about bad traffic C、it is common that people delay their payment D、Dick found it hard to deal with everyday problems
2、【单选题】Vauvenarges' remark suggests that _______. A、lying is an age -old human problem B、dishonesty increases as people get older C、people were dishonest in the 18th century D、it is social conditions that make people tell lies
3、【填空题】Passage 3 Decide which sentence would best complete the passage logically if inserted in the corresponding blanks. Critical Reading Critical reading applies to non-fiction writing in which the author puts forth a position or seeks to make a statement. Critical reading is active reading. It involves more than just understanding what an author is saying. __1__ Here are the things you should do to be a critical reader. Consider the context of what is written. You may he reading something that was written by an author from a different cultural context than yours. Or, you may he reading something written some time ago in a different time context than yours. __2_ Question assertions made by the author. Don’t accept what is written at face value. __3__ Look for facts, examples, and statistics that provide support, also look to see if the author has integrated the work of authorities. Compare what is written with other written work on the subject. Look to see that what is written is consistent with what others have written about the subject.__4__ Analyze assumptions made by the author. Assumptions are whatever the author must believe is true in order to make assertions. In many cases, the author’s assumptions are not directly stated. __5__ once you identify an assumption, you must decide whether or not the assumption is valid. __6__. In doing this, be certain that the sources are credible. For example, Einstein is a credible source if the author is writing about landmark achievements in physics. Also be certain that the sources are relevant. Einstein is not a relevant source when the subject is poetry. Finally, if the author is writing about a subject in its current state, be sure that the sources are current. For example, studies done by Einstein in the early 20th century may not be appropriate if the writer is discussing the current state of knowledge in physics. Identify any possible author bias. A written discussion of American politics will likely look considerably different depending on whether the writer is a Democrat or a Republican. What is written may very well reflect a biased position. You need to take this possible bias into account when reading what the author has written. That is, take what is written with "a grain of salt." A. This means you must read carefully in order to identify any as assumptions. B.Before accepting what is written, be certain that the author provides sufficient support for any assertions made. C.Critical reading involves questioning and evaluating what the author is saying, and forming your own opinions about what the author is saying. D.In either case, you must recognize and take into account any differences between your values and attitudes and those represented by the author. E.If there are inconsistencies, carefully evaluate the support the author provides for the inconsistencies. F.Evaluate the sources the author uses.
1、【简答题】Passage 4 and 5 Read the two passages below and, try to answer the following three questions Passage 4 The largest known creature ever to have flown, an extinct reptile with an estimated wingspan of 51ft, has been discovered by fossil hunters in west Texas. The creature, which lived more than 60 million years ago, had twice the wingspan of the biggest previously known pterodactyl, or winged reptile, and nearly six times the wing-span of the condor, the largest bird now alive. The estimated size of the creature is derived from calculations based on the size of many fragmentary, and some complete bones found in excavations during the past three years at Big Bend national park in Brewster County, Texas. Announcement of the discovery, in the present issue of Science, is expected to rekindle an old debate among palaeontologists over whether flying reptiles flapped their featherless, leathery wings or merely climbed on to high perches and leapt into the air currents to soar like gliders. One scientist familiar with the discovery said that the mammoth size of the newly found creature made improbable the theory that it was able to rise into the air under wing-power alone. He noted, however, that the lack of a reliable estimate of the reptile's weight virtually precluded any calculation of its aerodynamic properties. The fossils were found by Mr. Douglas Lawson, a graduate student at the University of California, who began searching in the Big Bend area while a student at Texas University. His continuing explorations and study of the fossils are being carried out under the auspices of the university's vertebrate palaeontology laboratory. Although the reptile clearly represents a new species, it has not yet been given a formal scientific name. There are many known species of flying reptiles. Scientists generally refer to all as pterosaurs, but the popular name pterodactyl is also considered correct. All are extinct. 'What's so extraordinary about this thing is its tremendous size', Dr. Wann Langston, director of the vertebrate palaeontology laboratory, said. 'There has never been anything like this before.' In his report Mr. Lawson says he has discovered the partial skeletons of three of the large pterosaurs, including the remains of four wings, a neck, the hind legs (forelimbs with claws are frequently part of the wing structure), and jaws, which were toothless. Unlike most previously known pterosaurs, the Big Bend creature was found in non-marine sediments, suggesting that its habitat was away from oceans. Most pterosaurs are considered to have been fish eaters, scooping up their prey while gliding over the waves. The Big Bend fossils were found in fresh-water sediments far from the oceans of that time. In his report Mr. Lawson writes that the reptile's unusually long neck suggests it may have been a carrion-eater, feeding on dead dinosaurs, much as the condors and other vultures of today consume dead animals. Passage 5 Monster could not flap wings The extinct reptile with an estimated wingspan of 51ft, found by fossil hunters in western Texas, would have been a warm-blooded creature, with a furry coat like that of a mammal, according to Mr. Adrian Desmond, of Harvard University museum of comparative zoology. M. Desmond, who is in England writing a book about dinosaurs and pterosaurs, said yesterday that the creature was much larger than any pterosaur - the popular name of which is pterodactyl - found before. The one found in 1970 in Soviet Kazakhstan was furry. 'It is wrong to think that the pterodactyl had featherless, leathery wings, because they were warm-blooded creatures, and the one found in Russia had furry wings, and fur on its fingers', he said. 'In that, they were like mammals, although they are called reptiles.' The size of the creature found in the Big Bend national park in Brewster County, Texas, was derived from calculations based on the size of many fragmentary, and some complete bones, excavated over the past three years. Mr. Desmond said that it would not have flapped its wings, because they would be too heavy for the creature to cope with if flapped. It would simply have raised them and floated into the air when it wished to fly. The find is much larger than anything discovered before. The largest one found before the Texas excavation had a wingspan of 23ft, and the latest find is extraordinary because it was never thought that there could be anything bigger. It is very fascinating indeed.' 1) In a paragraph of not more than 100 words, sum up the discovery described in the two passages, saying what is known and what is still not known about the creature.
1、【单选题】Which of the title below is the best for Passage 4? A、Monster could not flap wings B、The biggest flying monster in the world C、The Big Bend fossils D、The Big Bend creature
2、【单选题】Which of the title below is the best for Passage 5? A、Monster could not flap wings B、The extinct reptile C、Warm-blooded creatures D、The Big Bend
1、【单选题】The authors of both passages describe _______________________. A、a young person’s sense of wonder at first seeing a play B、a young person’s desire to become a playwright C、the similarities between plays and other art forms D、how one’s perception of the theater may develop over time E、the experience of reading a play and then seeing it performed
2、【单选题】The “happenings” mentioned in line 6 refer to the __________. A、work undertaken to produce a movie B、events occurring in the street outside the theater C、fantasies imagined by a child D、activity captured on the movie screen E、story unfolding on the stage
3、【单选题】In the final sentence of Passage7 (“I thought …in me”), the author expresses ____________. A、exultation B、vindication C、pleasure D、regret
4、【单选题】Which of the following best describes the difference between Passage6 and 7? A、Passage 6 remembers an event with fondness, which Passage 2 recalls a similar event with bitter detachment. B、Passage6 considers why the author responded to the visit as he did, while Passage 7supplies the author’s reactions without further analysis. C、Passage 6 relates a story from a number of different perspectives, while Passage 7 maintains a single point of view. D、Passage 6 treats the visit to the theater as a disturbing episode in the author’s life, while Passage 2 describes the author’s visit as joyful. E、Passage6 recounts a childhood experience, while Passage 7 examines how a similar experience changed over time.
4.1Module 13 Applying standards
1、【简答题】Applying standards for critical comprehension of the texts: Read the passages and decide what standards to apply in judging the truthfulness of the facts. 1. The Chicago Tribune once wrote that Henry Ford, the founder of the Ford Motor Company, was an ignorant man. Ford sued, challenging the paper to “prove it.” During the trial, Ford was asked dozens of simple, general information questions: “When was the Civil War?” “Name the presidents of the United States,” and so on. Ford, who had little formal education, could answer very few. Finally, exasperated, he said, “I don’t know the answers to those questions, but I could find a man in five minutes who does. I use my brain to think, not store up a lot of useless facts.” 2. Most people would like to think that they choose their friends solely on the basis of personal characteristics. A classic study of a housing complex for married students at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) suggests that proximity—nearness and availability—can be an important factor. Researchers asked couples to list their friends in the complex. They found that residents were far more likely to list the couple in the next apartment than one that lived two doors away, and more likely to visit with a couple two doors away than with one three or four doors away. A distance of thirty feet or a short elevator ride made the difference between friends and strangers! More recent studies have confirmed the importance of proximity. One possible explanation is that whenever people encounter strangers, they feel tense. The more they see a person, they more they come to think of that person as predictable and safe, and hence the more likely they are to strike up a conversation that leads to friendship. This would explain why the most popular couples in the MIT housing complex were those who lived at the bottom of the stairs near the garbage cans that everyone used.
4.2Module 14 Evaluating
1、【单选题】In this module, evaluating the text is achieved by presenting _________. A、only one question related to the text B、several separated questions realted to the text C、questions unrelated to the text D、seven progressive critical questions related to the text
2、【多选题】Picasso and his paintings can be evaluated as follows: _______________. (You can choose more than one answer) A、Picasso is one of the representatives of realism in western art history. B、Picasso is famous for his Cubist painting. C、Picasso’s painting is abstract for us to understand. D、Picasso’s paintings are unacceptable by the art circle. E、Picasso and his paintings are quite influential and well-accepted.
3、【填空题】Fill in the blanks based on the concept and application of “evaluation”. Evaluation is a systematic determination of a subject’s merit, worth and significance, using _____1_____ governed by a set of standards, such as ____2____, precision, accuracy, etc. In this module, evaluation as the reading strategy would be used to test the ____3____ of the text, through which students can achieve a deeper understanding of this part and also develop the ability of ________4_________ by reading beyond the ___________5__________.
4、【判断题】In the article “Marked Women, Unmarked Men”, the writer is ‘labeled” as a feminist because she always defends women against men in her works.
5、【简答题】Answer the following questions in a brief way. 1. What is “feminism”? For your part, do you think the writer is a feminist herself? 2. What’s the function of those quotations appear at the end of this module?
4.3Module 15 Predicting
1、【单选题】It is fluffy (松软的)，white, hot, and comes in a bag. It is probably A、Clouds B、Cotton C、Popcorn
2、【单选题】It is smooth, sweet, creamy, and delicious hot or cold. It is probably A、Ice cream B、Cheese C、Pudding
3、【填空题】Predicting is a reading comprehension strategy that readers use to anticipate what comes next based on clues from the text and by using their ____ knowledge.
4、【简答题】“They said this thing sleeps four,”said Ben, “but our three sleeping bags are tight. At least open the flap (布、皮等)扁平下垂物,垂下的部分and let some air in, Ed.” Where were Ben and Ed?
5、【简答题】Read the passage and make predictions. It was Michael's first day at school. He was sitting at his desk waiting for the rest of his classmates to arrive. He was looking forward to making new friends. He liked art, math and going to recess. Still, he was nervous. He didn't know anyone at his new school and was worried that he wouldn't make any friends. What if his classmates didn't like him? Just then, Michael heard laughter. A boy called out, "Michael, are you there? We want to meet our new classmate.” According to the story what do you predict?
4.4Module 16 Summary
1、【填空题】Read each statement and decide whether it is fact or an opinion. Write fact or opinion in front of each statement to indicate your decision. _______1. The condition known as color blindness is not found among women. _______2. Toads are ugly, frogs can jump, and snakes are slimy. _______3. If something is beautiful to you, it is beautiful. _______4. At one time, the automobile was a chief source of pollution in the U.S. _______5. Most elementary teachers are women because women are better suited to teaching at this level than men. _______6. All alcoholics were once social drinkers. _______7. India has a much larger population than Canada. _______8. Television programming made available at no cost to the viewer is a form of public service. _______9. In general, boys mature more slowly than girls. _______10. Scientific experiments have established that adding fluorine to drinking water reduces cavities. _______11. Boards of education should include students from the schools that the boards govern. _______12. The U.S. Printing Office will not disseminate material that is not factual and scientifically accurate. _______13. Algae will be an important source of protein in the future. _______14. “Buyers’ strikes” or boycotting the purchase of a given commodity can force its price down. _______15. A person’s behavior is a result of previous experiences.
2、【填空题】1. Queen Latifah got her start as a female rapper who consciously tried to combat the widespread sexism in the lyrics of Gangsta Rap. Her 1989 album “ All Hail the Queen”, features lyrics written from a woman’s point of view, and her sons celebrate powerful women, who don’t need guns to be strong. But the Queen of Royal Badness, as Latifah is sometimes called, is a multi-talented personality. In her hit situation comedy “Living Singly”, Latifah revealed that, in addition to a revieting presence, she also had superb comic timing. From a bit part as a sassy waitress in Spike Lee’s Jungle Fever, Latifah went on to starring roles in movies like “Set It Off” and “Living Out Loud”. Although neither movie was widely successful at the box office, the Queen got superb reviews, as well she deserved. When Queen Latifah is on the screen, you can’t watch anyone else; she’s just that good. Purpose: _______________-. To inform readers about Queen Latifah’s background and career. To convince readers that rap singer Queen Latifah is much more than a rap star. Tone: ______________. Emotionally neutral b. Sarcastic. Admiring
3、【填空题】The snowy owl is normally found in the coldest regions of North America. Every three or four years, however, snowy owls appear in large numbers in towns all across the United States. Animal behaviorists believe the periodic owl migrations are due to changes in the owls’ food supply. Snowy owls feed heavily on lemmings migrate every three to four years in search of food. When the lemmings leave the cold northern regions, so do the owls. Unfortunately snowy owls are becoming increasingly rare, in part because hunters often shoot them when they show up in large numbers. Purpose: _____________ To inform readers about the behavioral habits of snowy owls. To convince readers that something must be done to save the snowy owl Tone: _________. a. Emotionally neutral b. Enthusiastic c. Ironic
4、【简答题】Read the following passage and complete what are required to Japanese Techniques Come to America In a total of six states in the middle of America, 15,000 assembly-line workers are putting Japanese cars together. These autoworkers are assembling Hondas in Ohio, Toyotas in Kentucky, Mazdas in Michigan, and Nissans in Tennessee. Mitsubishi and Chrysler are jointly making cars in Illinios, and Subaru and Isuzu have set up shops in Indiana. The Japanese have brought more than their technology to their U.S. auto plants——they have also brought their own way of doing things. Using Japanese management techniques, managers at these plants have motivated American workers to produce cars of the same high quality as those made in Japan. There is a definite Japanese philosophy of all-for-one and one-for- all running through the day-to-day operations of these plants. For example, there are no narrow job classifications: No one is a welder or a painter. Instead, a visitor finds” technicians” at Nissan, “associates” at Honda, and “team members” at Mazda and Toyota. Employees at these manufacturing plants work in small, highly-coordianted groups. Every worker on an assembly line is responsible for his or her particular job, for inspecting the overall quality of the product at hand, and for improving the production process. Management tries to make all workers feel equally important. Assembly-line workers actively participate in decisions on scheduling overtime and rotating jobs. The Japanese Managers spend a great amount of time and energy building morale of workers and trying to ensure company harmony. Toyata encourages its “personal touch program”, an effort to promote after-hours socializing between Japanese and American workers. All the cheerleading that goes on in these plants must work very well: Nissan has the best attendance record in the U.S. auto industry, and it does not use time clocks. Team participation and strong interpersonal skills are definite requirements for workers in Japanese companies. Workers are rewarded for the impact they have on their “job team”, and not for any personal performance. Many autoworkers love the Japanese system; others say it is too stressful. 1. Highlight the main ideas within each paragraph. 2. Write one complete sentence, in your own words, that presents the information shown in each paragraph. 3. Paraphrase the author’s thesis. Notes: All are adopted from Fang, F. (2011). Graded English Reading Skills. Hefei: University of Science and Technology of China.
1、【单选题】According to the title “Modern dentists: How can they help you?”, what kind of text is it A、Fiction. B、Report. C、Magazine/Newspaper article.
2、【单选题】It was Michael's first day at school. He was sitting at his desk waiting for the rest of his classmates to arrive. He was looking forward to making new friends. He liked art, math and going to recess. Still, he was nervous. He didn't know anyone at his new school and was worried that he wouldn't make any friends. What if his classmates didn't like him? Just then, Michael heard laughter. A boy called out, "Michael, are you there? We want to meet our new classmate.” According to the story what do you predict? A、Michael will begin to cry, because he misses his mother. B、Michael's new classmates will make him feel very welcome. C、Michael will want to play football. D、Michael will draw a picture for his new teacher.
1、【单选题】In line 2, “surveying” most nearly means _____________. A、calculating the value of B、examining comprehensively C、determining the boundaries of D、polling randomly E、conducting a statistical study of
2、【单选题】It can be inferred that Hou Xianguang’s “hands began to shake” because he was_______________. A、Afraid that he might lose the fossil B、Worried about the implications of his finding. C、Concerned that he might not get credit for his work D、Uncertain about the authenticity of the fossil E、Excited about the magnitude of his discovery
3、【单选题】Particularly fast setting PVA glue is for quick adhesive jobs. Apply thinly and uniformly with brush or other spreaders. Press parts immediately together after application. Do not add water or other liquid and avoid contact of it with metals. It is non-toxic and non-flammable. Store in a cool, dry place. Avoid temperature over-40 degrees. From the message it can be inferred that __________________ A、Children’s handling of the glue is prohibiteD. B、Children are allowed to use the adhesive glue. C、It is possible for the glue to cause fire. D、It is better to keep the glue in the freezer.
4、【单选题】House A has three separate rooms that are used as sleeping areas. Each bedroom has its own door that can be closed and lockeD. The parents have the main bedroom, the daughter has the second bedroom, and the son has the thirD. A、can infer that ________________ B、rooms that are used as sleeping areas are called bedrooms. C、the daughter and son play loud music in their bedrooms. D、Physical privacy is important to the people in House A. E、House A is big and beautiful
5、【单选题】An officer was finding fault with the camp coo, who was stirring something in a big soup kettle. “I’ be been getting complaints about your cooking, shouted the officer. “Just let me taste the soup.” The cook quietly gave him a spoon and the officer took a taste. He spat it out at once. “Why, that tastes like dishwater,” he yelleD. “Yes, sir,” he replied the cook,” that’s what it is.” A、can conclude that _______________ B、the officer preferred to taste the soup before the others. C、the cook did not like the officer. D、the soup was made from dishwater. E、the officer got a lot of complaints about cooking.
1、【简答题】George Washington’s honesty is a trait that has been well publicized. The famous story of how little George chopped down his father’s favorite cherry tree, then bravely admitted to the deed, has an honored place in American presidential history. The cherry tree story was first recorded in 1806 by Parson Mason Weems, a Maryland preacher and storyteller. Unfortunately, Parson Weems was none too honest himself, and it appears that he invented the story of George and the cherry tree. There is no record of the cherry tree incident anywhere until it appears in Weems’s book. The parson, it seems, thought it acceptable to teach the virtue of honesty through a made-up story. We can judge Weems’s own truthfulness by the fact that he described himself in the book as “formerly rector of Mount Vernon Parish.” Such a parish never existed.
1、【简答题】When in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the laws Nature and Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation. We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that they are among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. That to secure these rights, governments are instituted among them, deriving their just power from the consent of the governed. That whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shown that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such government, and to provide new guards for their future security.